20

Yes and No By the standards of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (or DSM-IV in its current form), perhaps the most prominent all-in-one manual to assist physicians in accurately defining a patient's disorder, has specific criteria for a disorder, including: is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (...


9

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


6

Conditioning is considered an example (type) of association by associationism, a school of philosophy in psychology that suggests that all mental processes may be based on similar or proximal mental states. Usually this idea is too broad and vague to be very practical to apply, but it has spawned a number of useful fields of study, including connectionism, ...


6

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...


6

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


6

Short answer The 'OK pinch' (Fig. 1) expresses precision and control. It stresses particular phrases and shows commitment to his words. Background In an interview with Psychology professor Geoffrey Beattie, communication specialist Alan Stevens addressed this point on Euro News: source: Euro News ...This is probably Trump’s most well-recognized ...


5

There is no known specific process or part of the human brain which, when activated, causes the person to daydream, engage in fantasy or come up with ideas that are far from common reality. Instead, imagination is a broad-based activity which involves and overlaps with many brain regions and cognitive processes. The cognitive neuroscientific basis of ...


5

Solitary confinement serves no therapeutic purpose. Two uses of solitary confinement are generally acknowledged, namely as safety measure to protect the individual from themselves or to protect others from harm, or as a measure of discipline (that is, punishment). Deprived of normal human interaction, many segregated prisoners reportedly suffer from mental ...


5

The beginnings of theories based on attachment regarding long and short term interpersonal relationships is Attachment Theory which was started by John Bowlby. Attachment Theory is primarily applied to studies in relationships concerning children, even though it was expanded in the 80's to include adults. In attachment theory, as highlighted in the link ...


4

Yes, you can think of biological entities as algorithms, but that doesn't give you any explanatory power. Unfortunately, most people have little to no understanding of algorithms, and how little actually constraint is imposed on something when you say it is "algorithmic". In particular, there is no restrictions on algorithms that require them to be ...


4

I don't think anyone has ever bothered (though Ralph Miller might disagree), since many of the 'failures' are outside of the model's purview. The model expresses as simply as possible the profound insight that we learn most when our expectations are not met. Many features of learning won't conform to this general principle (spontaneous recovery) but it doesn'...


4

There is a substantial body of literature addressing each of these questions (why do people quit therapy and what predicts positive outcomes); unfortunately there are no easy answers. In part, this is because the literature has looked at these questions from a range of angles, including client characteristics (age, race, gender, motivation, education level, ...


4

It seems to be related to a kind of "Peer pressure". This is due the change of the context. A profound discussion is regarded as confidential talk and you will notice that the voice volume is lower than a discussion with many people. But why is a profound discussion regarded as confidential? Maybe because you could touch scientific taboos. Every time you ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

A great open lecture set is Human Behavioral Biology by Robert Sopolsky through Stanford. It's on YouTube. I also recommend Paul Bloom's Intro to Psych through Yale open courses.


4

There is a lot of research here so there is a lot to cover. Please bear with me. There are what is known as 3 forces of psychology Behavioural Theory (First Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 203) Psychodynamic Theory (Second Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 139) Humanistic Theory (Third Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 79) ...


4

Giving a dollar to homeless people on the street serves no aid to the donor, since the only difference is who has that dollar, and clearly to have the dollar is better than not. This action is therefore entirely altruistic.


4

The professional term for hand-writing analysis seems to be "Graphology" and there is no clear evidence that it could be used to predict a person's behaviour or character. For a starting point see the wikipedia page, then there are this article in the New York Times from 1993 and this more recent article from BBC from 2005 for more casual explanations of the ...


4

Primatologist Jill Pruetz at Iowa State University in Ames was observing savanna chimpanzees in Senegal and found that chimps there have mastered the first step in controlling fire. However there is this article from worldnewsdailyreport.com, which talks about a group of chimps in the Congo mastering the use of fire through experimentation and observation. ...


4

Yes. In fact, the modern view of positive and negative reinforcement is that they are essentially synonyms. They are different ways of looking at the same thing, like describing a glass of water based on how full or how empty it is: In this paper, we reconsider the issue from the perspective of 30 years. However, we could not find new evidence in ...


4

I have not been able to find any term, medical or non-medical, which includes the word asynchronous, but to add to the answer by @user20460 there is the non-medical term hobbies. Taking part in hobbies and other interests is recommended to anyone who suffers from anxiety and/or depression because not only can it provide a distraction, but it can also ...


4

Turf war mixed with artificial distinctions. Behaviorism can hardly be considered outdated when the most popular therapies are behavioral: CBT, DBT, ACT. Even modern implementations of mindfulness are behavioral. Behaviorism is also popular in performance management and organizational psychology, addiction, instructional design, etc.


4

Herd mentality (aka mob mentality) involves people following others without (deliberate) thinking - ie, impulsively or blindly: ... describes how people can be influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors on a largely emotional, rather than rational, basis. Most experiments in herd mentality involve strangers. There are other terms for non-...


3

The literature on social grooming in humans mentions examples of grooming, most of which are unique to humans, include: running fingers through another’s hair, giving massages, washing the body or hair, shaving, removing lint or hair from another’s clothing, swatting away insects, and giving manicures or pedicures, and removing pus from blemishes or ...


3

I experience empathy to the extent that it causes massive social phobia and other such problems. Other human beings end up being a constant sort of noise even when they're silent and being around them too often drains me of all my energy, but I don't actually produce my own emotions a lot of the time (or I can't recognize them as well not sure) so being left ...


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