20

Yes and No By the standards of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (or DSM-IV in its current form), perhaps the most prominent all-in-one manual to assist physicians in accurately defining a patient's disorder, has specific criteria for a disorder, including: is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (...


9

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


8

Although it would be hard to experiment on dead peasants, I believe that the Status Quo Bias promotes the idea that laziness is a human trait. You can see the orignal research here, or just google the term. Samuelson, W., & Zeckhauser, R. (1988). Status quo bias in decision making. Journal of risk and uncertainty, 1(1), 7-59.


7

A possible way to try to answer this, is to analyze usage of words such as lazy versus words such as diligent over the years. As a toy example, I used Google Ngram viewer to compare the frequency in which the words lazy, indolent and slothful are used in the main part of a sentence, to the frequency in which the words diligent, industrious, and laborious are ...


7

You wrote: For the purposes of this question I would assume that it's fairly common knowledge in psychology that people touch nose or cover the mouth when saying something part of them does not believe to be true. Avoid make assumptions like this. This is not common knowledge, and in fact it is not even true. Vrij et al. (2010) discuss the literature on ...


7

First of all, asymmetries in apparently symmetric creatures (of which most are) are actually quite typical. However, in most cases of hand dominance, there is no population-wide hand dominance. In other words, the population is split 50/50 between left and right handers. In humans, however, a lack of hand dominance is often associated with cognitive ...


7

First, the concept of optimality of a learning curve is not well defined. You can measure at least 3 different aspects of learning: Speed of learning Time before extinction Performance at peak Of course, there may be other measures as well, and any combination of such measure may also be a legitimate measure for certain uses. Conditioned Taste Aversion (...


7

I also think it's false that Skinner really said it (exactly like that), and even if he said it offhand verbally, it's almost certain he didn't put it in writing in that form. My argument is that the 4-gram "shape him into anything" doesn't show in n-gram viewer, which means there are very few books containing it... according to the help. If you try "give ...


6

Conditioning is considered an example (type) of association by associationism, a school of philosophy in psychology that suggests that all mental processes may be based on similar or proximal mental states. Usually this idea is too broad and vague to be very practical to apply, but it has spawned a number of useful fields of study, including connectionism, ...


6

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...


6

Short answer The 'OK pinch' (Fig. 1) expresses precision and control. It stresses particular phrases and shows commitment to his words. Background In an interview with Psychology professor Geoffrey Beattie, communication specialist Alan Stevens addressed this point on Euro News: source: Euro News ...This is probably Trump’s most well-recognized ...


5

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


5

It seems that what you are getting at might be related to “akrasia” or “weakness of the will” (those two are slightly different ideas). Roughly, it's the experience that you know something to be the right course of action, want (in some sense) to follow it but still do not succeed in actually doing it. Since classical Greek philosophers have written about it,...


5

There is no known specific process or part of the human brain which, when activated, causes the person to daydream, engage in fantasy or come up with ideas that are far from common reality. Instead, imagination is a broad-based activity which involves and overlaps with many brain regions and cognitive processes. The cognitive neuroscientific basis of ...


5

Solitary confinement serves no therapeutic purpose. Two uses of solitary confinement are generally acknowledged, namely as safety measure to protect the individual from themselves or to protect others from harm, or as a measure of discipline (that is, punishment). Deprived of normal human interaction, many segregated prisoners reportedly suffer from mental ...


5

I have not been able to find any term, medical or non-medical, which includes the word asynchronous, but to add to the answer by @user20460 there is the non-medical term hobbies. Taking part in hobbies and other interests is recommended to anyone who suffers from anxiety and/or depression because not only can it provide a distraction, but it can also ...


4

I don't think anyone has ever bothered (though Ralph Miller might disagree), since many of the 'failures' are outside of the model's purview. The model expresses as simply as possible the profound insight that we learn most when our expectations are not met. Many features of learning won't conform to this general principle (spontaneous recovery) but it doesn'...


4

There is a substantial body of literature addressing each of these questions (why do people quit therapy and what predicts positive outcomes); unfortunately there are no easy answers. In part, this is because the literature has looked at these questions from a range of angles, including client characteristics (age, race, gender, motivation, education level, ...


4

A great open lecture set is Human Behavioral Biology by Robert Sopolsky through Stanford. It's on YouTube. I also recommend Paul Bloom's Intro to Psych through Yale open courses.


4

Yes, you can think of biological entities as algorithms, but that doesn't give you any explanatory power. Unfortunately, most people have little to no understanding of algorithms, and how little actually constraint is imposed on something when you say it is "algorithmic". In particular, there is no restrictions on algorithms that require them to be ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

It seems to be related to a kind of "Peer pressure". This is due the change of the context. A profound discussion is regarded as confidential talk and you will notice that the voice volume is lower than a discussion with many people. But why is a profound discussion regarded as confidential? Maybe because you could touch scientific taboos. Every time you ...


4

There is a lot of research here so there is a lot to cover. Please bear with me. There are what is known as 3 forces of psychology Behavioural Theory (First Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 203) Psychodynamic Theory (Second Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 139) Humanistic Theory (Third Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 79) ...


4

Giving a dollar to homeless people on the street serves no aid to the donor, since the only difference is who has that dollar, and clearly to have the dollar is better than not. This action is therefore entirely altruistic.


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible