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Before trying to give any sort of answer, it is important to address a common misconception. In popular culture, the terms child-molester and pedophile are often equated. Scientifically, they are not at all the same. The approximate scientific definition for a pedophile is: an individual that has an unwavering sexual attraction to prepubescent children ...


20

"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of "...


17

The phenomenon's called the incubation effect. Wikipedia operationally defines the incubation effect as any benefit of a break during problem solving. In Wallas’ (1926) four-stage model of innovative problem solving or creativity, the incubation stage is the stage in which one takes some time away from the problem (the stages are: preparation, incubation, ...


15

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs and applying a threshold to the result, to determine the output of that "neuron". Several decades of research went into discovering how to build network ...


13

Short answer Brain waves are not electromagnetic waves. Long answer Measured brain activity, as you already mentioned, is the result of individual neurons firing. The activity exists, in fact, of two parts. First of all, there are the action potentials (APs). APs are current flow within a neuron from one end to the other. The magnitude of these APs (and the ...


12

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise in ...


12

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


11

This sounds similar to the "curse of knowledge" phenomenon (also called the "curse of expertise" by at least one publication that I found). From Wikipedia: "The curse of knowledge is a cognitive bias according to which better-informed people find it extremely difficult to think about problems from the perspective of lesser-informed people." Some ...


11

Ironically enough, Wikipedia does offer as meaningful a distinction as any of the answers here so far: The term sociopathy may have been first introduced in 1909 in Germany by biological psychiatrist Karl Birnbaum and in 1930 in the US by educational psychologist George E. Partridge, as an alternative to, or a subtype of, the concept of psychopathy.[137] It ...


11

I'm studying computer science at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany) specializing in Machine Learning and a minor in Mathematics. I am not a biologist. An artificial neural network is basically a mathematical function. It is built from simple functions which have parameters (numbers) which get adjusted (learned). One example of such a function ...


11

Short answer Brainwaves are typically associated with the electroencephalogram, which is a signal mainly composed of potential differences generated in the superficial layers of the brain. Potential differences represent electric fields and do not represent electromagnetic (EM) radiation. EM radiation is build up of packets of energy (photons). EM radiation ...


10

This is an experiment testing the Stroop effect, named after John Ridley Stroop who studied it in 1935, and often called a Stroop experiment. It is a classic and well understood experiment and has now become a neuropsychological test for use in clinical settings, usually called the Stroop test.


10

It is alexithymia if you're looking for a diagnostic term. It is not a case of "you either have it or you don't—alexithymia is a continuum. There even exists a scale, which is a professional scale so to get it you need to pay for it and be a researcher. It's called Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20).


9

If you had asked about cognitive distortions, I probably could've answered straight away about one of those! I think it might be an illusion of transparency. Your example somewhat aligns to the definition provided by Gilovich, Medvec & Savitsky (1998): "... we refer to this tendency to overestimate the extent to which others can read one's internal ...


9

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


9

I'm not sure about children recalling memories of their ancestors, but there is such a thing as Genetic Memory. In one study mice who were trained to fear a specific smell passed on their trained aversion to their descendant. Who were then extremely sensitive to, and fearful of the same smell, even though they had never encountered it, nor been trained to ...


9

Interesting question! Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states, motivations, etc. to others and recognize that others have separate intentions, states, and motivations from his or her own. The specific phenomenon that you are describing may stem from this concept called naive realism, or the idea that we see the world as it truly is, and ...


9

Robin Kramer gave a good starting point in his comment. As he said, the difference between laziness and avolition primarily come from the causes of each behavior. Laziness is common among psychologically "normal" individuals while avolition is commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Now I will go in depth with each to better characterize ...


8

Mirroring is when one acts like others one is in the presence of. For example, an individual may pick up inflections, wording, or mannerisms of others they spend time with. From Wikipedia: Mirroring is common in conversation. The listeners will typically smile or frown along with the speaker. If one person throws in sports metaphors, the other will likely ...


8

Perhaps you are looking for blunted affect? Wikipedia's definition goes like this (article has been updated since): Blunted affect is a clinical term to define a lack of emotional reactivity (affect display) in an individual. It manifests as a failure to express feelings either verbally or non-verbally, especially when talking about issues that ...


8

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


8

You never know what's gonna offend someone...That being said, "hallucinations in people with schizophrenia" does seem the safer option, but "schizophrenics" (not capitalized) is used plenty often. Here's an interesting Google result: Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) is a self-help group for persons who have schizophrenia or a schizophrenia-related illness. ...


8

It's the other way around: Psychology is a discipline within Cognitive Science, which includes Artificial Intelligence, Neuroscience, and possibly Philosophy of Mind. Research work in Psychology presumably makes you a Cognitive Scientist.


8

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


8

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


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