3

The first sentence of the abstract is: Rats given a series of shocks exhibit a potentiated startle response to a loud acoustic stimulus compared to nonshocked animals Shock sensitization to startle refers to how giving a series of shocks results in a stronger startle in response to a startling acoustic stimulus. The first sentence of the introduction is: ...


2

As in everything in psychology and the studies of behaviour and the brain, there are many interpretations for the extremely complicated process of learning. If you want to check a basic (But detailed) book on most of the early understandings on the subject of Learning, I recommend anything written by Michael Domjan; specially "The Principles of Learning ...


2

We refer to neurons that are connected to each other as having a "reciprocal" connection (however, the term is also used to refer to regional reciprocal connections in addition to neuron-neuron connections). For typical neurons, much more than one input is necessary to reach action potential threshold, so you wouldn't expect reciprocally connected ...


1

This is usually referred to as emotional expression or affect display, which can be verbal as well as non-verbal, whereas body language is exclusively non-verbal, and not exclusive to emotion. This function can certainly go wrong: There are a few disorders that show deficiency in emotional expression and response. These include alexithymia, autism, ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible