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This is just a chosen convention in biology. All that matters is we use a consistent convention. The one chosen is that outward positively charged ion movement is positive, inward positively charged current is negative; outward negatively charged current is negative, inward negatively charged current is positive. It would be valid to do everything the ...


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It seems the topic of time perception is quite complicated. In contrast to the place and grid cells in the hippocampus (Moser et al., 2015), the perception of time seems to be distributed across many places in the brain. A review by Fontes et al., 2016) cites 158 papers written between 1980 to 2015 that describe a variety of brain structures relating to the ...


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One synapse can have different types of receptors for the same neurotransmitter (NT) (example: Glutamate - most glutamatergic synapses have both AMPA and NMDA types of receptors). Synapses can also have receptors for different neurotransmitters (see link). One neuron can also have different types of synapses which operate with different NT. An example of ...


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Short answer It's messy. Background The classical psychedelics (mescaline, DMT etc.) are derived from plants (peyote, ayahuasca) and have a long history of use by shamans and originally often mainly served religious purposes, before being exploited by the New World peoples for recreational (and occasionally scientific) purposes. LSD is also considered to be ...


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I think there are many ways to accomplish this in terms of technical detail, but they will all boil down to measuring the arrival of an action potential along the axon on at least two points with known distance from each other on the axon. From these two arrival times the latency can be deducted. Then, by dividing the distance between the elektrodes by the ...


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The different types of connections can be histologically identified and separated on the basis of their connectivity in the cortex. Recurrent synapses in the cortex can be defined as (Douglas & Martin, 1995): [...] connections between layer 2 and 3 pyramidal cells, in which a target neuron projects back to its source neuron in a tight positive feedback ...


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