12

Green and Lynn (2000) conducted a meta analysis of 59 experiments investigating the efficacy of hypnosis on smoking cessation. Their conclusions were: There is mixed, inconclusive evidence for whether hypnosis is any better than placebos. Hypnosis treatments were generally confounded with educational interventions and cognitive/behavioral interventions, ...


11

Assuming there's not a neurological dysfunction underlying sleep deprivation (which is even more possible with Aspergers as sleep dysfunction is a typical comorbidity) it can simply be a learned behavior. The more you do something (whether you particularly "enjoy" it or not) the more likely you are to build it up as a habit. Procedural memory is always at ...


10

Not aware of any studies on this topic. I think this is a tricky question because of the nature of sleeping. Hypersomnia does not fit in with physiological nor psychological dependence because of the following (from the proposed DSM-V revision, but similar enough to the DSM-IV-TR) symptom: "The sleep periods are non-restorative (unrefreshing) or so ...


8

"Nor can I see potential for one to become psychologically dependent or addicted to sleep." I believe someone can become "psychologically dependent on sleep". I am 47 and have used sleep for 40 years to escape from life. I typically sleep 4-6 hours too much each day. I don't really physically need this sleep, since I then am often awake the next night ...


7

This is not my area, but I think the definition of addiction is contentious for many reasons. Addiction often has normative implications; i.e., that addiction is bad. It can imply an inability to not do the act. It doesn't seem useful to me to talk about being addicted to the needs necessary for survival, such as breathing, eating, excreting, modulating ...


7

This is a part answer, which only refers to the concept of resilience. One of the first studies that invesigated resilience was the Kauai-Study, which was a longitudinal study of a cohort in Hawai to investigate the cognitive, social and physical development of children. (Werner and Smith, 1982) Of the children who had to deal with a couple of risk factors ...


7

This is a primary subject of study in game studies and ludology, which are domains of theory and research unto themselves. Moreover, the question as it pertains to games might be interesting to ask over on Arqade, though I can't guarantee it would be "on topic" enough for their community. You might find the following questions from Arqade interesting, as ...


7

As I pointed out in Technical term for "hidden addictions", the term addiction is defined as not having control over doing, taking or using something to the point where it could be harmful to you. Often it can start with a habit but then it becomes an addiction because there is a compulsion to continue the habit. You can continue with your daily ...


5

According to this article: (1) "listening to music you like also triggers the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in underlying pleasurable reactions caused by food, drugs and arousal before intercourse" (2) "The chemical has been linked in a variety of studies with mechanisms underlying addiction in humans, and it would appear that ...


5

Addiction is defined as not having control over doing, taking or using something to the point where it could be harmful to you. Often it can start with a habit but then it becomes an addiction because there is a compulsion to continue the habit. Addiction is most commonly associated with gambling, drugs, alcohol and nicotine, but it's possible to be ...


5

It depends on the type of addictive substances (i.e., opioid, amphetamine, LSD, etc). Different types bind to different sets of receptors of neurotransmitters (i.e., dopamine, serotonin, GABA, etc.) in the nervous system. And different receptors have different distribution in the nervous system. So the affected regions are different for different addictive ...


5

"The United Nations World Drug Report 2013 estimated that approximately 16.5 million people worldwide aged 15 or older used heroin or opium. Of these users, approximately 23% are estimated to develop opioid dependence." This is from the introduction section of Hser, Y. I., Evans, E., Grella, C., Ling, W., & Anglin, D. (2015). Long-term course of opioid ...


4

Grønbæk and Nielsen (2007) conducted a randomized, controlled study of the Minnesota model for treating alcohol dependence in Denmark. 148 alcohol dependent individuals participated. The study reported a significant difference in alcohol abstinence between control and treatment groups when data was aggregated over the one-year period. However, by the end of ...


4

There is no specific term for this entire phenomenon because there is more than one psychological theory playing a role in your overindulgence or "binge". Fatigue from repetitiveness, durability bias, and habituation all play a huge role in determining how long you can listen to a certain song before its gets repetitive and boring. On the other hand, ...


4

There's debate over whether Internet addiction is it's own disorder or a symptom of an underlying psychosis. See this essay by the first man to publish the term: https://theconversation.com/is-internet-addiction-a-misnomer-55727


4

At least two phenomenons can be found here : The drive to wath the TV series is higher than the drive to study. The TV series are structured in such a way to attract and hook viewers. I will try to answer the second : TV series i.e. soap operas, Lost TV series etc mostly use two components to create addiction to viewers : curiosity and emotionally charged ...


4

Excoriation disorder (ED) formerly known as dermatillomania, and more popularly as Skin Picking Disorder (SPD): a mental disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pick at one's own skin, often to the extent that damage is caused. The status as a separate disorder is somewhat controversial, because of high comorbidity: There has been controversy ...


3

Short answer, which is one of many: One interesting hypothesis about this is the "reward hijacking" model. Essentially, when somebody becomes addicted their reward circuits become hypersensitive to drug-related cues and lack sensitivity to other rewards. Specifically, areas like their orbitofrontal cortex, which has to do with representing reward, and their ...


3

I'll try to roughly answer your question. It's not an easy one, and by no means does it have a narrow answer. Scientists have suggested, like you mentioned that stories show a lot about the basis of human thought So why do we like stories at all? From "The Storytelling Animal" (Jonathan Gottschall) “Some thinkers, following Darwin, argue that the ...


3

First, thank you bringing that White et al. (2009) paper to my attention -- I am currently accumulating a whole bunch of cohort studies focusing on cognitive epidemiology, or health outcomes associated with cognitive ability. Here I will share with you some of what I have collected so far with respect to drug-related outcomes. Is this type of finding, ...


3

The internet is flooded with anecdotal reports of 'Tian' relating to the drug's addictive potential after recreational use, for example here, here and here. Often, though, these reports come from people already addicted to other illicit drugs. Notably, tianeptine is used for rehab purposes, just like the partial opioid agonist naloxone. So anecdotal reports ...


3

It seems that genetic plays significant roles in dopamine addiction: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350797 And also a study of "born-addicts": http://www.addictscience.com/genetics-d2/ But also it is connected to ADHD studies. It is well known that people with ADHD are vulnerable to addiction. They think it is because reward deficiency system: http://...


3

You'll have to buy his books, go to his seminars, maybe book a series of private sessions, and then maybe you'll find out what he's talking about. That's how (what I call) the neo-Freudians work. Let me quote from an interview with him: The idea of hidden addictions refers to the exploitation of a series of drives that govern our behavior usually ...


3

Whereabouts in the brain gets triggered/switched on when an addictive substance is ingested/taken. Irrespective of their particular pharmacology, the one thing that all drugs of addiction have in common is that they will all converge onto a single common neural substrate, the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. The mesolimbic pathway has dopamineric projections ...


3

Short answer Addicition is defined as: repeated involvement with a substance or activity, despite the substantial harm it now causes, because that involvement was (and may continue to be) pleasurable and/or valuable. The 'repeated involvement' basically excludes any drug from a diagnosis of addiction after first-time use. Addiction is a behavioral dependence ...


3

This is a tough question to answer definitively. I won't address heroin specifically but rather drugs of abuse more generally since a lot of the addictive patterns are the same and heroin is less often studied in the lab. I am not aware of studies that specifically use the protocol you are describing in human subjects; although you might be able to make ...


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