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Green and Lynn (2000) conducted a meta analysis of 59 experiments investigating the efficacy of hypnosis on smoking cessation. Their conclusions were: There is mixed, inconclusive evidence for whether hypnosis is any better than placebos. Hypnosis treatments were generally confounded with educational interventions and cognitive/behavioral interventions, ...


9

This is a primary subject of study in game studies and ludology, which are domains of theory and research unto themselves. Moreover, the question as it pertains to games might be interesting to ask over on Arqade, though I can't guarantee it would be "on topic" enough for their community. You might find the following questions from Arqade interesting, as ...


7

According to the article "Addiction to Music Has Biochemical Basis" on Softpedia News by Tudor Vieru, which reports on findings by Robert Zatorre and Valorie Salimpoor (Salimpoor & Zatorre, 2013), who both hold appointments as neuroscientists at the McGill University: "listening to music you like also triggers the release of dopamine, a ...


7

This is not my area, but I think the definition of addiction is contentious for many reasons. Addiction often has normative implications; i.e., that addiction is bad. It can imply an inability to not do the act. It doesn't seem useful to me to talk about being addicted to the needs necessary for survival, such as breathing, eating, excreting, modulating ...


7

This is a part answer, which only refers to the concept of resilience. One of the first studies that invesigated resilience was the Kauai-Study, which was a longitudinal study of a cohort in Hawai to investigate the cognitive, social and physical development of children. (Werner and Smith, 1982) Of the children who had to deal with a couple of risk factors ...


7

As I pointed out in Technical term for "hidden addictions", the term addiction is defined as not having control over doing, taking or using something to the point where it could be harmful to you. Often it can start with a habit but then it becomes an addiction because there is a compulsion to continue the habit. You can continue with your daily ...


6

Possibly of interest: 2011 study from Berkeley, published in the Journal of Neuroscience: Pulling an all-nighter can bring on euphoria and risky behavior: https://news.berkeley.edu/2011/03/22/pulling-an-all-nighter/


6

Addiction is defined as not having control over doing, taking or using something to the point where it could be harmful to you. Often it can start with a habit but then it becomes an addiction because there is a compulsion to continue the habit. Addiction is most commonly associated with gambling, drugs, alcohol and nicotine, but it's possible to be ...


6

The answer to this question is indeed: We don't know - as @ChrisRogers correctly explained. However, let me mention some related research that may help shed some light on the question. Recently, there have been several highly publicized studies suggesting that psychedelic drugs can be useful in the treatment of addiction. A few of these preliminary studies ...


5

It depends on the type of addictive substances (i.e., opioid, amphetamine, LSD, etc). Different types bind to different sets of receptors of neurotransmitters (i.e., dopamine, serotonin, GABA, etc.) in the nervous system. And different receptors have different distribution in the nervous system. So the affected regions are different for different addictive ...


5

"The United Nations World Drug Report 2013 estimated that approximately 16.5 million people worldwide aged 15 or older used heroin or opium. Of these users, approximately 23% are estimated to develop opioid dependence." This is from the introduction section of Hser, Y. I., Evans, E., Grella, C., Ling, W., & Anglin, D. (2015). Long-term course of opioid ...


4

There is no specific term for this entire phenomenon because there is more than one psychological theory playing a role in your overindulgence or "binge". Fatigue from repetitiveness, durability bias, and habituation all play a huge role in determining how long you can listen to a certain song before its gets repetitive and boring. On the other hand, ...


4

There's debate over whether Internet addiction is it's own disorder or a symptom of an underlying psychosis. See this essay by the first man to publish the term: https://theconversation.com/is-internet-addiction-a-misnomer-55727


4

First, thank you bringing that White et al. (2009) paper to my attention -- I am currently accumulating a whole bunch of cohort studies focusing on cognitive epidemiology, or health outcomes associated with cognitive ability. Here I will share with you some of what I have collected so far with respect to drug-related outcomes. Is this type of finding, ...


4

At least two phenomenons can be found here : The drive to wath the TV series is higher than the drive to study. The TV series are structured in such a way to attract and hook viewers. I will try to answer the second : TV series i.e. soap operas, Lost TV series etc mostly use two components to create addiction to viewers : curiosity and emotionally charged ...


4

Grønbæk and Nielsen (2007) conducted a randomized, controlled study of the Minnesota model for treating alcohol dependence in Denmark. 148 alcohol dependent individuals participated. The study reported a significant difference in alcohol abstinence between control and treatment groups when data was aggregated over the one-year period. However, by the end of ...


4

Excoriation disorder (ED) formerly known as dermatillomania, and more popularly as Skin Picking Disorder (SPD): a mental disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pick at one's own skin, often to the extent that damage is caused. The status as a separate disorder is somewhat controversial, because of high comorbidity: There has been controversy ...


3

It seems that genetic plays significant roles in dopamine addiction: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22350797 And also a study of "born-addicts": http://www.addictscience.com/genetics-d2/ But also it is connected to ADHD studies. It is well known that people with ADHD are vulnerable to addiction. They think it is because reward deficiency system: http://...


3

For something to be considered a mental disorder worthy of it's own definition, it needs to have some really strong effects that are consistently different from others definitions and are not explained by co-morbidity of others. ADHD, OCD, and Tourettes all exhibit co-morbidity and common brain regions, but since the symptoms and treatment differ so ...


3

I don't know how reproducible those findings are, but this study (Schretlen, van der Hulst, Pearlson, & Gordon, 2010) found a moderate association between fluid intelligence and openness to experience: The two separate samples yielded strikingly similar associations between trait Openness and cognitive test performance. In both samples, Openness ...


3

I'll try to roughly answer your question. It's not an easy one, and by no means does it have a narrow answer. Scientists have suggested, like you mentioned that stories show a lot about the basis of human thought So why do we like stories at all? From "The Storytelling Animal" (Jonathan Gottschall) “Some thinkers, following Darwin, argue that the ...


3

Short answer, which is one of many: One interesting hypothesis about this is the "reward hijacking" model. Essentially, when somebody becomes addicted their reward circuits become hypersensitive to drug-related cues and lack sensitivity to other rewards. Specifically, areas like their orbitofrontal cortex, which has to do with representing reward, and their ...


3

The internet is flooded with anecdotal reports of 'Tian' relating to the drug's addictive potential after recreational use, for example here, here and here. Often, though, these reports come from people already addicted to other illicit drugs. Notably, tianeptine is used for rehab purposes, just like the partial opioid agonist naloxone. So anecdotal reports ...


3

You'll have to buy his books, go to his seminars, maybe book a series of private sessions, and then maybe you'll find out what he's talking about. That's how (what I call) the neo-Freudians work. Let me quote from an interview with him: The idea of hidden addictions refers to the exploitation of a series of drives that govern our behavior usually ...


3

Whereabouts in the brain gets triggered/switched on when an addictive substance is ingested/taken. Irrespective of their particular pharmacology, the one thing that all drugs of addiction have in common is that they will all converge onto a single common neural substrate, the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. The mesolimbic pathway has dopamineric projections ...


3

Short answer Addicition is defined as: repeated involvement with a substance or activity, despite the substantial harm it now causes, because that involvement was (and may continue to be) pleasurable and/or valuable. The 'repeated involvement' basically excludes any drug from a diagnosis of addiction after first-time use. Addiction is a behavioral dependence ...


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