13

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


10

The question which of these two descriptions is correct? is perhaps natural in the context of, say, someone studying for an examination. Epistemologists might suggest that a better formulation would be is either of these correct? However, as stated here there are clear reasons for preferring the first formulation to the second. I shall first explain why, ...


10

The Computational Theory of Mind is not that the mind does some form of computation in the wide sense of computation. Rather, look at the examples for the CToM given in the Wikipedia article; people like Fodor, Pinker, Marr. Their view is very much the opposite to the Connectionist position of West Coast scientists like Rumelhart, Elman and McClelland. Both ...


10

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


9

My answer is probably a weird hodgepodge of sometimes poorly explained stuff, but hopefully it's coherent enough :P For many decades in psychology, we've had a mechanistic stimulus-organism-response understanding of the brain. That is, a stimulus triggers an internal psychological process, which produces some behavioral response. One of the major ...


8

I don't think there's any evidence suggesting that mindfulness or meditation are the opposite of self-regulation. In arguing why, it'll be useful to define terms. Meditation and mindfulness First off, meditation and mindfulness are not the same thing. Meditation generally refers to a family of practices for investigating or inducing different states of ...


8

ACT-R can best be summarized with this (tiny but more recent) graph: ACT-R is a cognitive architecture that tries to explain as much of human behavior as possible with as little rules as possible. It works at a high level of abstraction and came down to a list of so-called "modules", each having its own functions. The exact mechanisms of each of these ...


7

I think this recent paper fits your requirements. It considers biological plausibility by showing that the number of neurons required in the proposed method is within a reasonable size for the human brain, and dismisses a series of unreasonable models. Specifically, they create a neural network using the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and the Semantic ...


7

In general, what you're looking for is a biologically plausible model of reinforcement learning and/or conditioning. I know of two publications in particular that address this. The first is A Biologically Plausible Spiking Neuron Model of Fear Conditioning and the second is A Spiking Neural Integrator Model of the Adaptive Control of Action by the Medial ...


7

It appears that there is little scientific backing for Jung's theories. As these theories were first suggested at the start of the 20th century they have had a considerable amount of time to receive scientific support. If they were accepted by scientists it therefore seems like they would have been widely used and cited by scholars in the interim period. ...


7

Read dayan and abbot "theoretical neuroscience" Learn differential equations Know the relationship between voltage, current, resistance and conductance Differential equations is absolutely essential though. you don't need to learn to solve them (the computer will do that for you), you just need to learn to know what they mean. How do researchers ...


6

Thoughts on the paper The paper appears to provide a high level overview of the role of mathematics in cognitive science. I'm not a sufficient expert in the overall field of cognitive science where I'd feel comfortable to truly judge the accuracy of the overall synthesis that Andler (2012) provides. That said, much of the paper is about providing examples ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


6

Has dom-ter loops theory been expressed formally in any kind of Jungian function theory study? Based on a reasonably diverse search of Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, I am concluding that dominant-tertiary loop theory seems to be an original proposal by the author of the forum post cited by the question author. It appears to be a theory which has ...


6

While both prism adaptation and negative transfer are pointers to the right direction, I'd see this as a question concerning brain plasticity (you may want to tag the question with that, I don't have the required points to create a new tag). The guy could indeed learn to ride the reverse bike, but he would have to work hard on it, and would have a hard ...


6

I totally agree. These words have become colloquial and have lost much of their meaning - and are therefore increasingly less helpful. Introversion is confused with shyness and sensitivity, while Extroversion is confused with social skills. This is partly because there is no agreed upon definition, insofar that they are operationally defined by each ...


6

Here's a quick answer from general background knowledge, not from any specific knowledge of "Bayesian Program Synthesis (BPS)" In general, Bayesian models can use strongly informed priors or diffuse "could be anything" priors. Strong priors specify that a lot of parameter values are very unlikely, while a few other parameter values are possible descriptions ...


6

Short answer Perception and imagination in the visual system use pretty much the same neural machinery, but in opposite directions - perception goes bottom-up, from the periphery to the central nervous system, while imagery uses the top-down approach, travelling from the higher associative cortices to the lower visual areas in the brain. Background The ...


5

Interesting question! A related phenomenon called the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) suggests that the human cognitive system has a systematic weakness in this kind of evaluation--I believe the classic example is asking people if they know how a helicopter works (most people say yes), and then asking them to explain how a helicopter works (very few ...


5

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.


5

Amos (2000) and Monchi et al. (2000) use the similar approach of assigning each card attribute to a node and using mutual inhibition to choose the right one. Although their models are biologically plausible and make many neuroanatomical predictions, they are functionally implausible. Their networks are created for the unique purpose of of completing the WCST....


5

I'm a TMS, but not an fMRI, researcher but I have experience using anatomical masks. I can guide you through the steps to make an anatomical mask, but unfortunately I don't have any code to offer you. First of all you need a set of x, y and z co-ordinates that specify where TOFC or LOC are. One way to find these is to find a paper that reports the x,y,z ...


5

Existing Papers I found three papers in the same vein with considerably more empirical evidence. 1. Modeling the Size of Wars In the paper, provinces and conflicts are modeled to justify Richardson's observation that the proportion of conflict severity in relation to their frequency is described by a power law. In other words, the more space there is between ...


5

This article explains the difference : Declarative memory takes the form of a semantic net linking propositions, images, and sequences by associations. The nodes of long-term memory all have some degree of activation and working memory is that part of long-term memory that is most highly activated. The declarative memory is all knowledge that ...


5

This question cannot be answered in the form in which you asked it both because of the limits of current neuroscientific theories and methodologies when it comes to determining the structures of complex neural representations (although we have made headway in a few cases such as place cells and grid cells), and because neural representations are not really ...


5

In my opinion as a computational neuroscience researcher, graph theory has not made major inroads into computational neuroscience because we don't have good evidence for what graphs characterise brains. For example, my research revolves around how patterns of connections between neurons within local cortical circuits relate to information processing ...


5

The question title reads: Does the split brain disprove a materialistic mind? The simple answer being no, nothing disproves that - the brain harbors the mind e.g., (Lilienfeld & Arkowitz, 2008). Now you mention that two hypotheses on split-brain patients are false, namely... Both [hemispheres] gain their own conscious mind. Only one [hemisphere] has ...


4

Is the theory of Information Metabolism a reasonable scientific theory? Short answer: No. A literature search of Google Scholar and Web of Science for "information metabolism" finds no empirical evidence to support the theory. Furthermore, it appears that the theory of information metabolism is virtually only embraced directly by the author, Kępiński, ...


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