15 votes

What is the difference between biological and artificial neural networks?

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs ...
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15 votes

Why can't we use 100% of the brain in a certain moment?

The widely quoted figure of "10% at a time" is actually overestimating simultaneous brain activity by up to an order of magnitude. As demonstrated by Lennie 2003 (Current Biology), the number of ...
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  • 2,414
11 votes

What is the difference between biological and artificial neural networks?

I'm studying computer science at KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany) specializing in Machine Learning and a minor in Mathematics. I am not a biologist. An artificial neural network is ...
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11 votes
Accepted

What is the information storage capacity of the human brain?

Disclaimer: Quantifying the capacity of the human brain is quiet complex as you might imagine. And although in cognitive neuroscience we often compare the brain to computers this is not an exact ...
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  • 1,125
9 votes
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Modern treatments of Alan Turing's B-type neural networks

To my knowledge, with respect to the context of the question, the first neural-like model of computations capable of learning – or, for that matter, computational model of neural processing and ...
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  • 745
9 votes
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Is back-prop biologically plausible?

Biological Plausibility of Back-Prop No, the algorithm of back-prop (BP) isn't biologically plausible. However, there are other means which involve propagating the error through multiple layers of ...
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  • 8,783
8 votes

How does the brain break down visual information for processing? What "channels" is visual input broken into?

The human visual processing system receives input from the eyes, and then passes it through a number of areas of the brain that break it down, process it in various different ways, recombine it, and ...
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8 votes

Is a network of neurons the only factor in memory?

Answer Yes, theoretically. Now According to my ongoing informal research, there are two sides of brain preservation innovation: 1) the preservation and mapping (building) the connectome; and 2) the ...
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8 votes

Are there neural loops within a column or an area of the cortex?

I've read evidence for single-neuron, two-neuron, and larger loops/cycles throughout the cortex, including intralaminar, interlaminar, and interareal neural loops. But it would take me far too long to ...
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  • 2,193
7 votes

How is the biological accuracy of ANNs typically measured?

One way the biological plausibility of an artificial neural network could be assessed is to look at how much a neural network abstracts away from the behavior of real neurons. For instance, it is ...
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  • 5,418
7 votes
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What do the weights of an artificial neural network represent in biological neurons?

The weights in an artificial neural network are an approximation of multiple processes combined that take place in biological neurons. Myelination plays a role, but not a major one. Weights in ...
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  • 1,497
7 votes
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Is there a neural network model of Pavlovian Learning?

In general, what you're looking for is a biologically plausible model of reinforcement learning and/or conditioning. I know of two publications in particular that address this. The first is A ...
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  • 8,783
7 votes

What are the rules that govern neuron behavior?

My question is: are these all the rules? No. Some things you left out: Plasticity (change) Very-short-term synaptic "plasticity" (changes in synaptic strength); at least a few different forms of ...
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  • 512
7 votes

Can a sufficiently complex ANN simulate consciousness?

David Chalmers has argued against the thermostat view, suggesting that adaptation to the environment is not sufficient. John Searle also disagrees that the current state of machine learning is capable ...
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  • 628
6 votes

Why can't we use 100% of the brain in a certain moment?

Far from being one single organ performing a single homogeneous function, the brain is actually several lobes, and each lobe is like a separate organ performing a dozen functions. Putting it in ...
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6 votes

Why do long range axons in mammals travel in white matter tracts?

Wen & Chklovskii (2005) looked at exactly this question through a simulation study. They assumed that the segregation of white and gray matter was the the result of evolutionary pressure to ...
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6 votes

How is the biological accuracy of ANNs typically measured?

Due to my newness to the field, I can only talk about comparisons of biological plausibility when discussing the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and functional modeling. What is missing from this ...
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  • 8,783
6 votes

Delay time of Transmitting the information from one neuron to another in brain

You mentioned the neurotransmitters released at the synaptic cleft, but seem to be interested in the complete picture. An action potential is actually very slow to propagate down an axon with a ...
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  • 503
6 votes
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What role do circular network structures play in neural networks?

In contrast to artificial neural networks, which are almost all feed-forward architectures, networks in biological brains are highly recurrent. In the networks of cortex, the majority of synaptic ...
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6 votes
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The computer model of the brain

This question's reference to a classical computer refers to a "Turing Machine" style of computation, also known as a knowledge system, in which decisions and possible results are pre-...
6 votes

Why can't human thoughts be stored in metals?

First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable ...
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6 votes
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Why is the occipital lobe behind instead of in front?

From the retina, visual signals next travel through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. This nucleus is quite centrally located, about as much in the middle of the brain as possible, and ...
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  • 5,816
5 votes
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What's the functional difference between the NEF and normal ANNs?

First, let's take a look at the basic principles of NEF. The first two principles (Representation and Computation) do seem analogous to trained ANN models. Additionally, with the hPES learning rule ...
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  • 8,783
5 votes

How many action potentials from presynaptic neurons would be required to make a postsynaptic neuron fire?

It is very very important to note that in the brain, most neurons are receiving input from way more excitatory synapses than necessary to bring the neuron to threshold. The thing is that they are ...
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  • 1,835
5 votes

Does an action potential abolish an excitatory postsynaptic potential?

While model neurons like the leaky integrate and fire may use a simplification in which the neuron forgets all previous information when it emits a spike, in a biological neuron, the synapse and the ...
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  • 1,835
5 votes
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Hebbian Learning - Understanding Simultaneous Firing

You basically have 2 options: Manually fire both neurons together that you want to pair - do this as many times as needed to pair them. After learning, it should be sufficient to fire only one ...
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5 votes

How to begin neural network Programming

A google search for neural network library will return many relevant pages, with neural network libraries written in several programming languages. You could also look for tutorials on programming ...
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5 votes

Do direct cortical pathways exist in the visual system, or do they all go via the thalamus?

Short answer Intracortical projections can be routed directly to other cortical areas (cortico-cortical projections), or via the thalamus (cortico-thalamo-cortical projections). Background ...
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5 votes
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"Nested Neurons": Are they biologically plausible?

Disregarding the feasibility of neurons within neurons in silico, the answer to Is there any evidence for neurons existing within other neurons in humans or other organisms? from a practical, ...
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