7

Short answer: We don't know. Long answer: There are a few major lines of thinking on the subject currently. Cognitive closure: One common argument is that this question is simply not answerable - at least not by humans. By this view, it is possible that the creation of an artificial intelligence that even resembles humans sufficiently to suggest ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


5

A google search for neural network library will return many relevant pages, with neural network libraries written in several programming languages. You could also look for tutorials on programming perceptrons which are among the most basic neural networks. This would teach you how to actually program the network from scratch, instead of using a pre-made ...


5

A human brain recognises letters by their constituent features (sub-letter parts). It is modelized by a pandemonium model where printed information is extracted locally then globally. In the letter recognition literature, this type of feature-based hierarchical model competes with template matching theories (with an advantage to the pandemonium-like models ...


5

Cognitive Architectures The description most closely matches the concept of a cognitive architecture. Whereas I would say most empirical cognitive science focuses on isolating cognitive functions or behavioral substrates, cognitive architectures are relatively unique because they attempt to run bottom-up simulations of interdependent sets of cognitive ...


5

Interesting question! A related phenomenon called the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) suggests that the human cognitive system has a systematic weakness in this kind of evaluation--I believe the classic example is asking people if they know how a helicopter works (most people say yes), and then asking them to explain how a helicopter works (very few ...


5

This question's reference to a classical computer refers to a "Turing Machine" style of computation, also known as a knowledge system, in which decisions and possible results are pre-programmed using if-statements, loops, and other logical constructs. However, most modern computer programmers and engineers are at least somewhat familiar with neural ...


4

An AGI is a man-made machine that can learn, adapt, think, plan, predict, etc. Cognitive science is the study of how our "biological machines" do those same processes.


4

Adding to what was already mentioned, there are several "Frontiers" journals: Frontiers in Neuroscience Frontiers in Neural Circuits Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience Then there are also several rather experimental journals that also sometimes publish computational papers, such as: Elife The Journal of Neuroscience ...


4

I am wondering whether converting someone's memory into digital data is possible or not. Not today, but it is an active area of research. One non-profit foundation, headed by computational neuroscientist Dr. Randal A. Koene (see also his personal website), that is working in this field is Carbon Copies. Dr. Koene, in collaboration dozens of others and the ...


4

I would say it depends on what your goals are and what parts of the grandmother cell "story" you want to highlight. Sure, the output layer is grandmother-like because it can represent single concepts If you are writing a classifier to identify objects, then in some ways, yes, the outputs of an ANN reflect "grandmother" cells in that they represent a single ...


3

Very interesting question. Although I have not a single little bit of expertise in this area, I do have some references you may want to read. First is a paper by Merz and Fromherz (2005) where they grew snail neurons on a silicon chip. Pfister et al (2007) also tried to grow neurons to allow interfacing between neurons and machine (for neural prosthesis e.g.)...


3

This is actual a pretty old and often debated question. It is called "Lady Lovelace's Objection" and first appeared in Alan Turing's seminal paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence". Below is my response to Lovelace's Objection, as well as Alan Turing's response which I wrote for a philosophy course in 2015. Perhaps it will be of interest to you? ...


3

Yes, there have been a number of studies on language development in children with congenital profound visual impairment (PVI) over the years. Selma Fraiberg first described differences in early development, specifically later emergence of personal pronouns compared to typically sighted children [1]. More recent studies found that the vocabulary development ...


3

Cyc is similar to what you are looking for. It is a database of general knowledge and is organized semantically. It is free to use for research purposes.


3

Depending on the definition of "psychology" and "psychological problems" sure. The APA defines psychology as "the scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes." If we take this to only apply to biological systems (as I am sure many researchers do) then no, because the robot is not a biological system and therefore we can not ...


3

This is a pretty broad question, however I think it's common enough that I think it's worth trying to answer. I'll break it down into the following: What signals do the brain send? How are these signals different than electronic signals? 1. Brain Signals The brain has a lot of different signaling modalities. Some fast acting, some slow acting. Mostly, ...


3

Finally! I found a news article explaining the Echoborg. The research was done in 2015 by Kevin Corti and Alex Gillespi at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Published at Frontiers of Psychology: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00634


2

I feel that the label of consciousness is merely a semantic distinction that belongs to the realm of philosophy, not neuropsychology. Like Noam Chomsky mentioned in one of his talks hosted by Lawrence Krauss - we could also ask ourselves whether animals (e.g. dogs) are conscious. I'm not exactly sure, he mentioned that birds are said to "fly" in Enlgish but ...


2

Natural language understanding systems can be based on discourse representation theories, which represent the meaning of English sentences as first-order logical predicates. Attempto Controlled English is one example of a natural language understanding system that relies on discourse representation theories. Similarly, there are several implementations of ...


2

I am not an expert on AI, but Cognitive Sciences at Indiana University lists the following journals that cover your topic. The journals look credible, as they are published by Elsevier and MIT, both reputable publishers of peer-reviewed journals: Artificial Intelligence publishes state-of-the-art research reports and critical evaluations of applications, ...


2

Summary I think Hawkins' terminology tends to be not as precise as it should be. I guess that's the root cause of this question as well. The impression that Hawkins says computers or neural networks will never be able to perform certain tasks which are routine for the human brain may be due to his lack of precision. Details You write (in a comment): I ...


2

There is a really close correspondence between Auditory Scene Analysis and Computational Auditory Scene Analysis. If you tried to build a speech recognition system, especially for use in noisy environments, while ignoring what we know from auditory psychophysics, physiology, and anatomy, I would guess that you would not get too far. The things we have ...


2

IIT implies that just about everything is 'conscious' (to a degree) in that you can measure its integrated information to say how conscious it is, while accepting that what we as humans typically describe as 'consciousness' is a very high value of this measure. That's sort of the whole point of the theory: having a definition of consciousness that starts ...


1

This is controversial, to say the least, and possibly false according to one interpretation on such experiments with monkeys. But note that there is a subtlety here: the way counterfactuals are usually tested with monkeys involves them having seen what a reward could have been, but had not received. Recent studies on reinforcement learning in primates ...


1

You also will want to check out PLOS Computational Biology. Most importantly, you want to read reviews in journals such as Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, and Trends in Neurosciences, as well as the Current Opinion series such as Current Opinion in Neurobiology.


1

This is a very broad and not well defined issue, but two theories that may help you to get a better understanding are the following : Triarchic theory of intelligence by Robert J. Sternberg Sternberg's definition of human intelligence is "(a) mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments ...


1

As I mentioned in the comments, the tool we're using is pyAudioAnalysis. The tool's author, Theodoros Giannakopoulos, also wrote an earlier paper "A dimensional approach to emotion recognition of speech from movies" This "Emotion Wheel" from that paper appears to be exactly what I was looking for: It's also worth mentioning, maybe, that this later paper ...


1

All we can say now is that machines have aspects of consciousness. This is according to Pagel (2017), who provides a summary of the various areas web-based browsers meet the criteria, or not: Pagel reveals the computer science criteria by quoting Williams (2012) “We will refrain from trying to give a universal definition of consciousness; for AI-...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible