17

Concurring with the comments on the Skeptics question, I am also not aware of a standardized operationalization of "number of decisions" that could be used to produce a meaningful measure for this, and to my knowledge no (serious) research has attempted to calculate a daily tally. This clearly poses little challenge for the numerous references to this and ...


13

It's an interesting phenomenon, and I think it can be seen in many other domains beyond lifts. At least where I live, pedestrian crossings have buttons, which I've seen people repeatedly press. You can see it often on computers and other digital devices when the system does not immediately respond to user input. Basic Bayesian Rational Actor My starting ...


12

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise in ...


12

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what ...


9

This is a very broad topic. I'll attempt to quickly summarize the most relevant findings from a wide variety of research areas. Post-rationalization: There is a fair bit of evidence that explanation follows decision-making, rather than the other way around. Here is a nice quote from Wikipedia attributed to Robert Zajonc: "decisions are made with little ...


8

If that same effect is happening with the "99% fat free" labeling, consumers would over-perceive the amount of fat I think you are misunderstanding the desired effect here. I don't see how "99% fat free" would lead to the impression that a product contains a lot of fat. My read is, "This is 99% fat free! That's really good!" as opposed to "1% fat" which ...


7

This is just an elaboration on my comment that Sanford et al (2002) might be relevant to the question. If you don't have access Tony Sanford indicates that "To obtain a copy of any of these papers, please email." The study reports three experiments. In experiment 2 they found experimentally that there was a preference for the "% fat free" format. Twenty-...


6

I believe these questions are dealt with by "support theory," the seminal publications being: Tversky, A., & Koehler, D. J. (1994). Support theory: A nonextensional representation of subjective probability. Psychological Review, 101(4), 547-566. Rottenstreich, Y., & Tversky, A. (1997). Unpacking, repacking, and anchoring: advances in support theory. ...


6

His very first use of heuristic beyond computer science (he won the Turing award in Comp. Science) is from 1946. The Proverbs of Administration Herbert A. Simon, Public Administration Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter, 1946), pp. 53-67 If so, the evidence that it is an error has never been marshalled or published-apart from loose heuristic arguments ...


6

Short answer: This is mostly a question about statistical significance. Cognitive dissonance theory encompasses several different research paradigms. I believe this question is about the "free-choice" paradigm - the only one that involves decision-making. This paradigm is also sometimes referred to as "choice-induced dissonance", or &...


6

I highly recommend PsychoPy over E-prime. Why? Keeping track of who has the e-prime dongle is annoying. Students learn it more easily (see data below). E-prime uses visual basic (boo) and PsychoPy uses Python (yay!). PsychoPy easily integrates with R, matlab, and HTML. Everyone is doing it... (see data). Some folks at UCSD did a survey in summer/fall 2014 ...


6

I think this is a rather difficult question to answer. Psychology Today sums up some interesting reasons why people totally aware of the risks involved in not wearing a seat belt (or in smoking tobacco products, alcohol abuse, dangerous driving...), still choose not to wear one (light up another cigarette etc.): Justification of risky behavior may be re-...


5

The adverse effects of meditation as reported in scientific studies are as follows: relaxation-induced anxiety and panic paradoxical increases in tension less motivation in life boredom pain impaired reality testing confusion and disorientation feeling 'spaced out' depression increased negativity being more judgmental feeling addicted to meditation ...


5

The probability of conjunctive events (all six tosses are heads) are overestimated, relative to a single event of similar overall probability. This result has been shown by Paul Slovic, in an experiment that is described in its abstract as follows: This study examined the effects on the attractiveness of a gamble, of manipulating the number and ...


5

Try an internet search on animal learning probability. Although that might not be what you want because it sounds like you specifically want insight as opposed to learning in general. Your particular example is problematic because you're inferring far too much on the subjects part. They might prefer B because they just want more of anything offered. The ...


5

Just found the book I used to study decision making. It's called Judgement and Decision Making and is written by Daniel and David Hardman. It is a perfect introductory book on the topic with references to pretty recent literature. It covers much of Tversky and Kahneman's work (the latter being the author of Thinking Fast and Slow), but also refer to ...


5

The problems presented by having too many choices are defined at the personal level by Overchoice and at the organization level as Analysis Paralysis. However, they both cover the same idea, wherein too many choices overwhelm a person's decision making process as each alternative is considered.


5

First, there's not complete agreement in psychology nor neuroscience: you can find support for most any imaginable position. But in terms of the consensus of recent peer-reviewed work, here are some thoughts. “When a person is drawn to a specific item on the menu or a particular romantic prospect, the mind is trying to tell him that he should choose that ...


4

It's called "accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative." Or put another way, it's easier to portray the glass as "half full" rather than "half empty." Especially when the ratio is not 50-50, but 99- to -1. That is "99 percent good" sounds a lot better than "1 percent bad." The above psychological factors are so powerful that they appear to outweigh ...


4

A much-cited reference on the statistical backgrounds is this one: Simon (1954), Spurious Correlation: A Causal Interpretation, J Am Stat Assoc; 49(267) A more recent, open access but applied research paper on the topic is: Parise et al. (2013), When Correlation Implies Causation in Multisensory Integration, Curr Biol; 22(1): 46–9


4

I like this idea! I think the task should be one where the data could be used by many analytic tools. Hence, the data would not only be beneficial for one particular question, for example parameter estimations, but also for other tools such as Systems Factorial Technology (see Townsend & Nozawa, 1995), which provides a deeper understanding of the ...


4

I agree with Marc-André, the selected stimuli should have no semantic association (or as little as possible) which is why I would encourage the use of geometric shapes that vary in colour. Additionally, I believe that the task should be as simple as possible in order to encourage the overall cleanliness of the data. As you suggested, one such task is the ...


4

I don't like the idea that the task should be low error, errors are needed for modeling choice. I don't like random dot motion because there are big individual difference making it hard to find a common calibration point over people. I prefer instead a numerosity judgement, e.g., are more of less than 50% of a square array of pixels (usually a large number) ...


4

Just a few comments... Since one of the advantages of a large data set is high statistical power, it might be a good idea to use a task where the key effect has not been found in previous studies. That would produce a guaranteed result: i.e., a high-power test of an important null result. A pop-out condition in visual search would be one example (i.e., no ...


4

Psychological Priming and Availability Heuritic are both concepts within Social Psychology and Behavioural Psychology. Although I can see where you are trying to make a link here, and there could be times where both are at play, Psychological Priming is different to Availability Heuristic. Psychological Priming Priming is a nonconscious form of human ...


4

Phineas Gage style indeed (is that a precursor to Gangnam style?) - ironically (referring to one large iron rod), Phineas Gage's accident is believed to have entirely removed his OFC, as well as parts of his PFC. Though Gage likely suffered some mental changes, his recovery was a far cry from any sweeping "lose his decision-making ability entirely" ...


4

It's possible that there is no sharp threshold between information gathering and acting. A recent paper by Piantadosi exploring that possibility, and citing a ton of (admittedly more conventional/mainstream) work on decision boundaries is: Alonso-Diaz S, Cantlon JF, Piantadosi ST (2018) A threshold-free model of numerosity comparisons. PLoS ONE 13(4): ...


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