14

Concurring with the comments on the Skeptics question, I am also not aware of a standardized operationalization of "number of decisions" that could be used to produce a meaningful measure for this, and to my knowledge no (serious) research has attempted to calculate a daily tally. This clearly poses little challenge for the numerous references to this and ...


13

It's an interesting phenomenon, and I think it can be seen in many other domains beyond lifts. At least where I live, pedestrian crossings have buttons, which I've seen people repeatedly press. You can see it often on computers and other digital devices when the system does not immediately respond to user input. Basic Bayesian Rational Actor My starting ...


12

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise in ...


12

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what ...


9

This is a very broad topic. I'll attempt to quickly summarize the most relevant findings from a wide variety of research areas. Post-rationalization: There is a fair bit of evidence that explanation follows decision-making, rather than the other way around. Here is a nice quote from Wikipedia attributed to Robert Zajonc: "decisions are made with little ...


9

The classic reference for exactly what you are describing is Gilovich & Medvec, 1995 (LINK), the primary thesis of which is that "Actions, or errors of commission, generate more regret in the short term; but inactions, or errors of omission, produce more regret in the long run" (from the abstract). The authors explain that there are many factors that ...


8

Perhaps the best well-known example of asking patients to do something at random was performed by Benjamin Libet in 1983[1]. Libet asked patients to wait until a spontaneous moment and push a button as they watched an animated clockhand circle. Surprisingly, what he found was that there were about 200 ms between cerebral activity indicating the patient was ...


8

If that same effect is happening with the "99% fat free" labeling, consumers would over-perceive the amount of fat I think you are misunderstanding the desired effect here. I don't see how "99% fat free" would lead to the impression that a product contains a lot of fat. My read is, "This is 99% fat free! That's really good!" as opposed to "1% fat" which ...


7

This is just an elaboration on my comment that Sanford et al (2002) might be relevant to the question. If you don't have access Tony Sanford indicates that "To obtain a copy of any of these papers, please email." The study reports three experiments. In experiment 2 they found experimentally that there was a preference for the "% fat free" format. Twenty-...


7

Check out this question on biology.stackexchange: Do omnivore mammals vary food preferences based on dietary needs? The answers in that question mention that experiments on Rats and Birds determined that there's an internal chemosensor, the anterior piriform cortex (APC) within bird and rat brains that senses lack of Indispensible Amino Acids (IAA). Animals ...


6

Intuition and implicit learning I recommend you have a read through Lieberman's (2000) review and theory article on intuition. Lieberman argues that intuition is a cognitive and behavioural consequence of implicit learning processes. Intuition is contrasted with more deliberate thought processes. It also reflects situations where it is often not possible ...


6

His very first use of heuristic beyond computer science (he won the Turing award in Comp. Science) is from 1946. The Proverbs of Administration Herbert A. Simon, Public Administration Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter, 1946), pp. 53-67 If so, the evidence that it is an error has never been marshalled or published-apart from loose heuristic arguments ...


6

Presumably the decision of drivers to slow down in response to work zone signage is influenced by many factors. Signage and road factors: Presumably there are a wide range of factors related to the nature of the signs and the structure of the road setting that influence whether people slow down. For example, I've seen road work signage on freeways that were ...


6

I believe these questions are dealt with by "support theory," the seminal publications being: Tversky, A., & Koehler, D. J. (1994). Support theory: A nonextensional representation of subjective probability. Psychological Review, 101(4), 547-566. Rottenstreich, Y., & Tversky, A. (1997). Unpacking, repacking, and anchoring: advances in support theory. ...


6

The experiment you are referring to is usually called the ultimatum game, and was first experimentally tested by Güth, Schmittberger, and Schwarze in 1982 [1]. [1] Güth, Werner, Rolf Schmittberger, and Bernd Schwarze. "An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 3.4 (1982): 367-388. PDF


6

Short answer: This is mostly a question about statistical significance. Cognitive dissonance theory encompasses several different methodological paradigms. I believe this question is about the "free-choice" paradigm - the only one that involves decision-making. This paradigm is also sometimes referred to as "choice-induced dissonance", or "post-decisional ...


6

I highly recommend PsychoPy over E-prime. Why? Keeping track of who has the e-prime dongle is annoying. Students learn it more easily (see data below). E-prime uses visual basic (boo) and PsychoPy uses Python (yay!). PsychoPy easily integrates with R, matlab, and HTML. Everyone is doing it... (see data). Some folks at UCSD did a survey in summer/fall 2014 ...


6

I think this is a rather difficult question to answer. Psychology Today sums up some interesting reasons why people totally aware of the risks involved in not wearing a seat belt (or in smoking tobacco products, alcohol abuse, dangerous driving...), still choose not to wear one (light up another cigarette etc.): Justification of risky behavior may be re-...


5

Decision-making or decision theory is its own subdiscipline under cognitive science (also often studied by statisticians, philosophers, economists, and faculty in business schools). Within this discipline, understanding how stress affects your behavior is very important and not understudied area. For a recent survey with a neurobiological focus, see: ...


5

The probability of conjunctive events (all six tosses are heads) are overestimated, relative to a single event of similar overall probability. This result has been shown by Paul Slovic, in an experiment that is described in its abstract as follows: This study examined the effects on the attractiveness of a gamble, of manipulating the number and ...


5

Try an internet search on animal learning probability. Although that might not be what you want because it sounds like you specifically want insight as opposed to learning in general. Your particular example is problematic because you're inferring far too much on the subjects part. They might prefer B because they just want more of anything offered. The ...


5

The adverse effects of meditation as reported in scientific studies are as follows: relaxation-induced anxiety and panic paradoxical increases in tension less motivation in life boredom pain impaired reality testing confusion and disorientation feeling 'spaced out' depression increased negativity being more judgmental feeling addicted to meditation ...


5

Just found the book I used to study decision making. It's called Judgement and Decision Making and is written by Daniel and David Hardman. It is a perfect introductory book on the topic with references to pretty recent literature. It covers much of Tversky and Kahneman's work (the latter being the author of Thinking Fast and Slow), but also refer to ...


5

The problems presented by having too many choices are defined at the personal level by Overchoice and at the organization level as Analysis Paralysis. However, they both cover the same idea, wherein too many choices overwhelm a person's decision making process as each alternative is considered.


5

First, there's not complete agreement in psychology nor neuroscience: you can find support for most any imaginable position. But in terms of the consensus of recent peer-reviewed work, here are some thoughts. “When a person is drawn to a specific item on the menu or a particular romantic prospect, the mind is trying to tell him that he should choose that ...


4

It's called "accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative." Or put another way, it's easier to portray the glass as "half full" rather than "half empty." Especially when the ratio is not 50-50, but 99- to -1. That is "99 percent good" sounds a lot better than "1 percent bad." The above psychological factors are so powerful that they appear to outweigh ...


4

As Piotr mentions in the comments, you must operationalize "better". Total time spent making a decision is likely to increase as the number of decision alternatives increase. This is known as Hick's Law. If each choice has some objective value, then the maximum possible value that could be attained is likely to increase as the number of decision ...


4

A much-cited reference on the statistical backgrounds is this one: Simon (1954), Spurious Correlation: A Causal Interpretation, J Am Stat Assoc; 49(267) A more recent, open access but applied research paper on the topic is: Parise et al. (2013), When Correlation Implies Causation in Multisensory Integration, Curr Biol; 22(1): 46–9


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