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The two concepts are analogous and mutually illustrative, but empirically refer to different levels of analysis: behavioral and neural. Habituation Habituation is a form of non-associative learning, specifically, learning that a stimulus is behaviorally unimportant. If I loudly and repeatedly bang on a metal pot immediately behind your head, you will ...


7

A bit of background on me: I’m a clinical psychologist and have worked with many sexual disorders, ranging from paedophile, to gender identity disorder. I am however no expert in any of these, so my answer is based on my own clinical experience and reading of the literature. Most of my colleagues, and me, think that the general answer is: no – there is not ...


6

Conditioning is considered an example (type) of association by associationism, a school of philosophy in psychology that suggests that all mental processes may be based on similar or proximal mental states. Usually this idea is too broad and vague to be very practical to apply, but it has spawned a number of useful fields of study, including connectionism, ...


5

This is called the Einstellung effect: ...Einstellung refers to a person's predisposition to solve a given problem in a specific manner even though "better" or more appropriate methods of solving the problem exist It is related to the idea of functional fixedness: Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in ...


5

Try an internet search on animal learning probability. Although that might not be what you want because it sounds like you specifically want insight as opposed to learning in general. Your particular example is problematic because you're inferring far too much on the subjects part. They might prefer B because they just want more of anything offered. The ...


5

The lateral amygdala appears to be involved in representing fear memories after extinction (Hobin, Goosens and Maren, 2003). The extent of the lateral amygdala's involvement in representing these appears to revolve around the context of the {CS, UCS} pair. The authors state the following in their abstract: Similarly, the majority of LA neurons exhibited ...


5

History Martin E. P. Seligman, has written extensively on the nature, etiology, and significance of learned helplessness, and in 1975, he broadened the scope of learned helplessness from animal behaviour to a wide variety of human behaviours, including reactive depression, stomach ulcers, voodoo deaths, and child development, then in 1978, he criticised and ...


4

Your question presupposes that 'deep' (in the brainstem) is the same thing as difficult to extinguish. But the anatomical location doesn't tell us how difficult it is to unlearn a CTA. One reason CTAs are difficult to extinguish is because extinction relies upon exposure to the cue (taste, in this case). And not many animals (including humans) will ...


4

I don't think anyone has ever bothered (though Ralph Miller might disagree), since many of the 'failures' are outside of the model's purview. The model expresses as simply as possible the profound insight that we learn most when our expectations are not met. Many features of learning won't conform to this general principle (spontaneous recovery) but it doesn'...


4

There is a lot of research here so there is a lot to cover. Please bear with me. There are what is known as 3 forces of psychology Behavioural Theory (First Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 203) Psychodynamic Theory (Second Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 139) Humanistic Theory (Third Force) – (Short & Thomas, 2014, p. 79) ...


4

Yes. In fact, the modern view of positive and negative reinforcement is that they are essentially synonyms. They are different ways of looking at the same thing, like describing a glass of water based on how full or how empty it is: In this paper, we reconsider the issue from the perspective of 30 years. However, we could not find new evidence in ...


3

This is homework. But it's still interesting. However, I'm not sure if this would be classified as classical or operant conditioning because although it's a voluntary behavior, it's prompted by a stimulus. I think it's operant conditioning, There are multiple learning processes involved. Some of them have already been established e.g. asking your friend ...


3

Short answer: It does not make sense to talk about 'bridging' implicit and explicit memory. Longer answer: Explicitness and implicitness of memory is most appropriately considered a property of the memory test, not the memory being tested. Memories, physically speaking, have both explicit and implicit properties. They are 'bridged' by default. The ...


3

Short answer Meditation may be key to block out distracting noise. Background One study has shown that during meditation, expert meditators with over 19,000 h of meditation experience show less brain activations in regions associated with discursive thoughts and emotions (prefrontal regions, basal ganglia, and subthalamic nuclei), and more activation in ...


3

The economic concept of marginalism comes to mind. Actors will spend money to buy virtual goods if the marginal cost (price) is lower than the marginal (subjective) utility of the virtual good. If you have lots of money it's easier to spend $10 on extra lives. This explains some of it. Most of the purchases are small, so the individual cost/utility analysis ...


3

I believe these two beautiful articles target just what you are looking for: Niv, Y., Joel, D., Meilijson, I., & Ruppin, E. (2008). Adaptive Behavior Evolution of Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments : A Simple Explanation for Complex... doi:10.1177/10597123020101001 Shafir, Reich, Tsur, Erev & Lotem, 2008: Perceptual accuracy and ...


3

This type of research is fairly new in the animal domain, so I guess it would be difficult to find a review unless you use keywords for specific cognitive functions and a species (e.g. "decision making" AND "rat"). This link is probably of interest: Rats match humans in decision making that involves combining different sensory cues Also note that rats are ...


3

This is a tough question to answer definitively. I won't address heroin specifically but rather drugs of abuse more generally since a lot of the addictive patterns are the same and heroin is less often studied in the lab. I am not aware of studies that specifically use the protocol you are describing in human subjects; although you might be able to make ...


3

By Wikipedia's definition a fetish is "a sexual fixation on a nonliving object or nongenital body part." So, no, it is not 'possible' for anyone to develop a 'fetish' towards a living object.


2

'Reinforcement' is anything that increases the chances that an organism with repeat a behavior. When you are teaching a behavior, in the beginning, eliciting behavior takes a lot of reinforcement. So, for example, if you want to teach you dog to come to you every time you go to the back door, you feed him a cookie when you go to the back door. After a while ...


2

Summary: From the few papers I've looked at, microtransaction-based games tend to work as suspected/designed. That is, games which rely on frustration to get the player to spend money (like Candy Crush) tend to obtain money from players with low tolerance for frustration; games which are more related to gambling (like "social casino" games) tend to get money ...


2

This is an excellent question. The difference between Classical conditioning (also called Pavlovian conditioning) and operant (instrumental) conditioning is subtle for the new student, but can be quite profound when fully appreciated. Pavlovian conditioning is learning a response that you have no control over. In this context, a conditioned taste aversion (...


2

The conditioning of aversion to taste is part of learning studies in which there is an association between food and flavors with positive reactions such as food preferences or satiety and negative reactions such as lack of appetite, gastric discomfort, etc. For example, it has been shown that patients with gastric discomfort acquire aversion to food, or ...


2

As a sort of partial answer, but since it's too much to add to the question itself... a more encompassing question would be whether fear conditioning can occur without awareness of the conditioning event happening at all. I suppose an affirmative answer to the latter implies the answer is also "yes" to my question because forgetting the association event ...


2

This LOP diagram explains it pretty well, acoustic information is remembered moderately well as it has moderate processing done on it to help you remember it, but as you can see, semantic is the best way to remember stuff, something is semantic if it's understood well or has meaning to you, so the best way to learn it is it to make sure that you understand ...


2

Subjective value is most often manipulated using some sort of incentive structure in attentional studies. Most commonly, the reward is in the form of time or money earned either directly or through 'points.' This is a very simple and common thing to do, so I don't know what you mean by "reproducible details" -- most studies will report little more than ...


2

"Contingent" means "dependent upon". See the first definition of http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contingent?s=t The reason the second definition there (which is the one you are thinking of) has the same word is because if B is contingent on A, then B is not for sure going to happen. B will only happen if A does.


2

It would have been pretty strange for there to be multi-year gaps in Skinner's publication record, and in fact, Skinner continued to publish every year in both of those periods and beyond (Epstein, 1977). I've provided a link to a list of his publications which includes both periods, but there is no real way to say which of these publications were the 'key' ...


2

Probably not. The closest thing I am aware of is Mayor et al (2016) [The Effect of Chronic Dieting Goals on Auditory Perceptual Biases] where they propose the existence of “wishful hearing,” which establishes that ambient product sounds can be perceived as more spatially proximal when more desirable and thus lead to increased purchase intentions and ...


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