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# Tag Info

17

Here are a few options. I have not tried them yet personally. As mentioned below, the rtdists package in R is able to fit both LBA and diffusion models. Other Options LBA Scott Brown has a copy of Donkin et al (2009) on his web page with some code in R, Excel, and WinBUGS for fitting the LBA model: http://www.newcl.org/publications/...

13

MANOVA is definitely a bad idea given that one dv is continuous and the other is binomial. After exploring a number of different approaches to combining RT and accuracy data, I've come to conclude that the best current approach is to use linear ballistic accumulator model (e.g., see Donkin et al 2011). The LBA is a simple (structurally and computationally) ...

11

The basic approach that you are describing sounds like inverse efficiency scores (e.g., see Townsend and Ashby, 1978,1983), which are measured as $$\frac{r}{1-e} = \frac{r}{c}$$ where $r$ is reaction time, $e$ is proportion error, and $c$ is proportion correct. John Christie provides a critique of inverse efficiency scores here or see the discussion in ...

11

A paper comparing the performance of Inverse Efficiency Scores and diffusion models for the quantification of RT and accuracy can be found here. Rach et al. (2011) "On quantifying multisensory interaction effects in reaction time and detection rate " Psychological Research Volume 75, Number 2, 77-94, DOI , PDF

10

There are a variety of models solving accuracy and RT that have been pretty well tested and LBA is probably fine (I haven't used it). If you don't want to go that far there is a rather simple way to analyze data controlling for SAT that has much better mathematical properties than IE scores (which, as Mike said were named by me, but offhandedly proposed by ...

9

For the diffusion model, there is also Eric-Jan Wagenmakers' "EZ-diffusion model", which you can find here. This paper compares three different pieces of software for estimation of diffusion model parameters: von Ravenzwaaij D., & Oberauer, K. (2009). How to use the diffusion model: Parameter recovery of three methods: EZ, fast-dm, and DMAT. ...

8

You can find an accessible overview of some of the issues in Whelan (2008) which contains further references discussing the issue. Note that from a statistical perspective, the sample mean and median are unbiased estimators of their population equivalents. That said, with outliers, skew and the like, the standard error of the sample mean can be quite a bit ...

7

First off, what button-box you use is going to be influenced by what software you're using to run the experiment, so ideally you should specify that. The PST serial response box is probably the industry standard, and is what we have in my lab, although a lot of that is probably down to it coming from the makers of EPrime. EPrime doesn't work on OSX though, ...

6

I think you need to think about what you mean by "speed of thinking". Your language implies that you are looking for a generalised way to be more intelligent. I have not seen any simple interventions for increasing general intelligence. You may find it more productive to focus on particular domains of your life that you want to improve. Practice and ...

6

Using Parameters Estimated from an Individual in a Group Analysis In a way this is exactly what usually happens when we calculate the mean reaction time across all conditions for a group of participants. When we normally calculate mean reaction times we assume that some process (P) takes t milliseconds to complete plus some Gaussian distributed noise. We ...

6

vand den Bos et al (2002) van den Bos et al (2002) summarises research over various ages. They reported: The reading task was to read in 1 min, as fast and accurately as possible, the unique and unrepeated words of a stan- dardized word-reading test. Results indicate that word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures continue to ...

6

In short: none that I could find. Indeed, it's a very one-way relationship - the more you drink the worse reaction time gets. However, there is a starting point, which is generally put around .02-.06 depending on your chosen study - below that threshold the effect of BAL on reaction times is difficult to pin down. Most studies I found showed that below .05% ...

6

Here are a couple of suggestions: Inquisit records the timing of each response and can be run online. If you care about timing a lot and you need to run the study online, then this is quite a good option. Qualtrics can record various features of survey delivery time. In particular, you can record time spent on each survey page. If you have one question per ...

5

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.

5

Another possible approach is using EZ-diffusion model suggested by Wagenmaker, van der Mass and Grasman (2007). Quoting Brown & Heathcote (2008; p. 4): This model is extremely simple, with just one source of variability in evidence accumulation—within-trial randomness—and simple linear accumulation (although evidence for one response does count ...

5

I recently had similar problem and I used inverse efficiency (IE) scores. These scores were derived by dividing the response times by correct response rates separately for each condition, carried out in such a way that the higher the score was, the worse was the performance. So you get something like "corrected reaction time" scores. Here is example of paper ...

4

I imagine most software designed for creating psychological experiments will be able to do this. (e.g., EPrime, Direct RT, MediaLab, SuperLab, etc.). I've mainly used Inquisit to record responses and response times. These are all proprietary options. You could also readily implement a trial interface with a textbox and response times in standard programming ...

4

The number of samples that are necessary for a good parameter estimation does indeed depend on the estimation method. I am not aware of a simple rule of thumb to determine an optimal sample size, but there has been a lot of literature on this topic. A paper that might be a good starting point for a literature search is Van Zandt T. (2000) How to fit a ...

4

Disclaimer: I'm not generally doing experiments where reaction time is the primary DV. But I thought I'd look at this issue and explored RTs from a neuroimaging dataset, and I think the findings are relevant to the question. I think without further qualification, this question doesn't have an answer. Here I've plotted the estimation of reaction time/RT over ...

4

Reaction times can be measured by a variety of techniques in the lab. The simplest test is to present a stimulus to a test subject and instruct the subject to press a button as fast as possible after the stimulus is perceived. Responses can be measured by using a response box. Often-used stimuli are either visual (e.g., a colored dot that pops up at random ...

4

I like this idea! I think the task should be one where the data could be used by many analytic tools. Hence, the data would not only be beneficial for one particular question, for example parameter estimations, but also for other tools such as Systems Factorial Technology (see Townsend & Nozawa, 1995), which provides a deeper understanding of the ...

4

I agree with Marc-André, the selected stimuli should have no semantic association (or as little as possible) which is why I would encourage the use of geometric shapes that vary in colour. Additionally, I believe that the task should be as simple as possible in order to encourage the overall cleanliness of the data. As you suggested, one such task is the ...

4

I don't like the idea that the task should be low error, errors are needed for modeling choice. I don't like random dot motion because there are big individual difference making it hard to find a common calibration point over people. I prefer instead a numerosity judgement, e.g., are more of less than 50% of a square array of pixels (usually a large number) ...

4

Just a few comments... Since one of the advantages of a large data set is high statistical power, it might be a good idea to use a task where the key effect has not been found in previous studies. That would produce a guaranteed result: i.e., a high-power test of an important null result. A pop-out condition in visual search would be one example (i.e., no ...

3

You can transform RT, i.e., by log(1/RT). This makes the distribution roughly normal. The problem is that you don't usually run the ANOVA on the RT values collected at each trial, but on the average for each participant. So the distribution across participants need to be normal. A trick is to transform the single RT values, calculate the mean for each ...

3

Often, very similar phenomena have different names when studied in different modalities, because they are studied by different communities. That's why searching for perception response times + auditory doesn't yield great results (Although I did find [1] this way). Something else to try, is to pick a highly cited paper that you did find, and then search ...

3

This article by Whelan (2010) is one of the best introductory papers I've found on the subject. Normalization is covered quite clearly and extensively, including the caveats and "gotchas". References Whelan, R. (2010). Effective analysis of reaction time data. The Psychological Record, 58(3), 9.

3

As mentioned in the other comments, ANOVA is problematic when mixing types of predictor variables. (Generalized) mixed effects models are gaining popularity these days and actually provide a very convenient way for modelling such things. A paper demonstrating the efficacy of this approach as well as giving a tutorial-like introduction is: Davidson, D. J. ...

3

In the subheading you also mention that you're interested in matlab / python implementations: I've personally used DMAT in matlab at that's a nice package. However, the python based HDDM package may be one of the best around at the moment (in my opinion) and it has a good user guide. http://ski.clps.brown.edu/hddm_docs/abstract.html and the paper ...

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