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14

As part of my PhD within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), one of the things I am trying to support the user in is multitasking. This might be relevant for you since interruptions and multitasking are highly interlinked. I'll refer you to some of the key papers I encountered during my background research, including some on the effects of ...


13

First, it is not only your intuition - there are many experimental results showing that we first perceive the gist of scenes (for example, is it outdoors or indoors?), then the major parts of it (was there an animal, or a human figure in it?) then more and more details (is that figure male or female? what is her expression?) [1] [2]. Note, however, that it ...


12

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what Thomas Kuhn would ...


11

General Review of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Performance There is a review article Chiesa et al (2011) which would provide a good starting point. They review 23 studies looking at the effect of mindfulness meditation on performance on objective cognitive tests. Twenty three studies providing measures of attention, memory, executive ...


8

Increasing Concentration A method that is geared espeacially towards reading scientific texts is SQ3R. SQ3R is short for survey, question, read, recite and review. So instead of "just reading" a text, one is supposed to survey it first to grasp the basic outline by reading the abstract, introduction or table of contents formulate questions as to what it ...


7

Eye contact is one of the principal cues humans use to evaluate where other people direct their attention. A special issue on the use of eye tracking in the Infancy journal and other studies reported that infants' eyes are useful measures of attention over a range of task domains including object perception (Johnson, Slemmer, & Amso, 2004), faces (Hunnis ...


6

From the Wall Street Journal: Office workers are interrupted—or self-interrupt—roughly every three minutes, academic studies have found, with numerous distractions coming in both digital and human forms. Once thrown off track, it can take some 23 minutes for a worker to return to the original task, says Gloria Mark, a professor of informatics at the ...


6

Neville Moray has given permission for his answer (provided via personal correspondence) to be quoted here: "Treisman said that physical characteristics such as loudness or pitch were not attenuated by selective attention, because although you can't hear semantic information from rejected messages in shadowing experiments, you can hear changes in pitch, or ...


6

Intuition and implicit learning I recommend you have a read through Lieberman's (2000) review and theory article on intuition. Lieberman argues that intuition is a cognitive and behavioural consequence of implicit learning processes. Intuition is contrasted with more deliberate thought processes. It also reflects situations where it is often not possible ...


6

Wickens et al. (2003) is the earliest I'm aware of: Wickens, C. D., Goh, J., Helleberg, J., Horrey, W. J., & Talleur, D. A. (2003). Attentional models of multitask pilot performance using advanced display technology. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45(3), 360-380. Actually, in that paper he cites Wickens ...


6

In general, evidence suggests that we are attracted to contrast rather than brightness (luminance). For example, the onset of a bright light on a dark background is often used as an exogenous cue for visual attention, but a dark cue on a bright background works just as well. So, signs generally aim to be high contrast against their background. Contrast shows ...


6

Firstly its important to note that attention basically the outcome of automatic processes, although attention may easily be directed by conscious choices. As a previous poster mentioned the reticular formation does have a mediating role in attention. However its doesn't really control attention, so much as it does direct it based on processing in other ...


6

You should consider using subject-specific alpha channels and frequency ranges. There are differences between individuals in alpha peak frequency. Also the placement of the EEG cap as well as small differences in orientations of cortex can affect which channels pick up perceptual activity. One way to do this would be to record data from the subject with ...


5

A 2006 study by Horrey, Wickens and Consalus implemented a computational SEEV (Salience, Effort, Effort, Value) model for driving behavior that predicted scanning behavior, which I surmise is what was meant. The authors conclude: The most important practical implication of the current results is that a simple expected value version of the SEEV model ...


5

I think this is an interesting, but difficult question to answer. Hemispatial neglect patients do not typically have problem with visual pathways per se. Wikipedia suggests that the disorder is most closely linked to damage of the temporo-parietal junction and posterior parietal cortex, areas associated with attention. Thus, the sensation (e.g. on the ...


5

I don't have a complete answer, but I'll add on to Christian's comment. I'm not really familiar with an evolutionary account of facial expressions, but folks like Adam K. Anderson have implied that the original use of facial features for sensory sampling have been co-opted for social use (e.g., to indicate attention, which Christian pointed out, or affect, ...


5

I think your references are good examples of the way that some of this research is covered in the media (World of Warcraft is good for you! Yay!) as opposed to the academic research which is much more cautious and limited. You seem to be familiar with the 10+ years of research by Bavelier, Green and colleagues showing improvements in attention. The first ...


5

The answer to this question could be found in the mind-wandering literature (see this for a review). Figure 1 in the paper really nicely depicts the possible situations possible when looking at task engagement and self-generated thought. I'll summarize them here: You are engaged in the task, i.e. attention is focused outwards, and the stimuli you perceive ...


5

The answer lies in what is known of the conscious, unconscious and the presconscious parts of the mind, with preconscious is the scientific name for the subconscious, however, for the purposes of this answer and because of how the theory of hypnosis is put together, I will refer to the preconscious as the subconscious. When I was learning about the basis of ...


4

Assuming you're getting at a related idea to your other recent question (Does a more ergonomic and user friendly interface/device make the human brain work less?), I wouldn't worry about user friendliness causing mental atrophy by precluding the need for thought. Thought continues well beyond matters of control to matters of application and optimization. (E....


4

The answer is "yes." The entire field of Human Factors and Ergonomics is devoted to enhancing the experience of the human user. Cognitive engineering is the branch of human factors that focuses specifically on how people perceive and respond to system interfaces. Engineers and scientists in this field try to design components, systems, interfaces, and even ...


4

The answer ought to be a qualified "Yes." We don't only hear what we want, in as much as motivation has zero direct control over the transduction of auditory signals in a sensory sense. Motivation affects which way we turn our ears and whether we keep them in a room with sounds we want to hear vs. a room with sounds we don't want to hear, but if those sounds ...


4

Sounds like a class of faults resulting mainly from a common sequence: habituation, automation, assimilation, discrimination error. Habituation. The tasks you describe are generally simple, ordinary, and as you say, there is a "correct" way to do them that is known. This would encourage a heuristic-based approach to problem-solving response generation. ...


4

The phenomenon you describe is called the global precedence effect, and was first studied extensively by David Navon (1977). One way to measure this effect is to create conflict between global and local features. For example, Navon presented observes with letter stimuli that were globally organised into different letters, such as; Observers were instructed ...


4

If what you are seeking is how to present material so that cognitive overload does not occur, you are in the realm of learning theory.[1] Cognitive load theory and schema (learning) theory go hand in hand in. Schemas are frameworks of information (like a steel-framed skyscraper in your mind); they start as very basic ("This is a cell") and become more ...


4

Does this phrase represent an actual clinical diagnosis? There is no such diagnosis in the DSM. Based on your definition (the tendency to start new ideas without thinking them through), it is probably correlated with psychological constructs such as impulsivity or deliberation. These can be measured using tests such as the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and ...


4

I found one study that looked at ASMR and the Default Mode Network (DNM). The DMN consists of the medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal cortices, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. In the study, the DMN of 11 individuals with ASMR was compared with 11 controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR showed ...


4

Short answer Attention can be quantified with a sustained attention to response task. Background I think with focus or concentration you mean sustained attention to a certain task. A sustained attention to response task (SART) (Silverstein & Palumbo, 1998) could be helpful to you (here is a free PsychoPy script). SART seems to be a reliable measure for ...


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