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As part of my PhD within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), one of the things I am trying to support the user in is multitasking. This might be relevant for you since interruptions and multitasking are highly interlinked. I'll refer you to some of the key papers I encountered during my background research, including some on the effects of ...


14

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what ...


7

Eye contact is one of the principal cues humans use to evaluate where other people direct their attention. A special issue on the use of eye tracking in the Infancy journal and other studies reported that infants' eyes are useful measures of attention over a range of task domains including object perception (Johnson, Slemmer, & Amso, 2004), faces (Hunnis ...


6

In general, evidence suggests that we are attracted to contrast rather than brightness (luminance). For example, the onset of a bright light on a dark background is often used as an exogenous cue for visual attention, but a dark cue on a bright background works just as well. So, signs generally aim to be high contrast against their background. Contrast shows ...


6

From the Wall Street Journal: Office workers are interrupted—or self-interrupt—roughly every three minutes, academic studies have found, with numerous distractions coming in both digital and human forms. Once thrown off track, it can take some 23 minutes for a worker to return to the original task, says Gloria Mark, a professor of informatics at the ...


6

Firstly its important to note that attention basically the outcome of automatic processes, although attention may easily be directed by conscious choices. As a previous poster mentioned the reticular formation does have a mediating role in attention. However its doesn't really control attention, so much as it does direct it based on processing in other ...


6

You should consider using subject-specific alpha channels and frequency ranges. There are differences between individuals in alpha peak frequency. Also the placement of the EEG cap as well as small differences in orientations of cortex can affect which channels pick up perceptual activity. One way to do this would be to record data from the subject with ...


5

A 2006 study by Horrey, Wickens and Consalus implemented a computational SEEV (Salience, Effort, Effort, Value) model for driving behavior that predicted scanning behavior, which I surmise is what was meant. The authors conclude: The most important practical implication of the current results is that a simple expected value version of the SEEV model ...


5

I don't have a complete answer, but I'll add on to Christian's comment. I'm not really familiar with an evolutionary account of facial expressions, but folks like Adam K. Anderson have implied that the original use of facial features for sensory sampling have been co-opted for social use (e.g., to indicate attention, which Christian pointed out, or affect, ...


5

I think your references are good examples of the way that some of this research is covered in the media (World of Warcraft is good for you! Yay!) as opposed to the academic research which is much more cautious and limited. You seem to be familiar with the 10+ years of research by Bavelier, Green and colleagues showing improvements in attention. The first ...


5

The answer to this question could be found in the mind-wandering literature (see this for a review). Figure 1 in the paper really nicely depicts the possible situations possible when looking at task engagement and self-generated thought. I'll summarize them here: You are engaged in the task, i.e. attention is focused outwards, and the stimuli you perceive ...


5

This is an interesting question, and after mostly failing to find recent literature I've become fascinated at why this topic is not more heavily studied. It looks like a field ripe for disruption by new ideas and approaches. I'm not convinced that procrastination is any different in those diagnosed with ADHD than in neurotypicals. As with many psychiatric ...


4

Does this phrase represent an actual clinical diagnosis? There is no such diagnosis in the DSM. Based on your definition (the tendency to start new ideas without thinking them through), it is probably correlated with psychological constructs such as impulsivity or deliberation. These can be measured using tests such as the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and ...


4

Assuming you're getting at a related idea to your other recent question (Does a more ergonomic and user friendly interface/device make the human brain work less?), I wouldn't worry about user friendliness causing mental atrophy by precluding the need for thought. Thought continues well beyond matters of control to matters of application and optimization. (E....


4

The answer is "yes." The entire field of Human Factors and Ergonomics is devoted to enhancing the experience of the human user. Cognitive engineering is the branch of human factors that focuses specifically on how people perceive and respond to system interfaces. Engineers and scientists in this field try to design components, systems, interfaces, and even ...


4

The answer ought to be a qualified "Yes." We don't only hear what we want, in as much as motivation has zero direct control over the transduction of auditory signals in a sensory sense. Motivation affects which way we turn our ears and whether we keep them in a room with sounds we want to hear vs. a room with sounds we don't want to hear, but if those sounds ...


4

Sounds like a class of faults resulting mainly from a common sequence: habituation, automation, assimilation, discrimination error. Habituation. The tasks you describe are generally simple, ordinary, and as you say, there is a "correct" way to do them that is known. This would encourage a heuristic-based approach to problem-solving response generation. ...


4

If what you are seeking is how to present material so that cognitive overload does not occur, you are in the realm of learning theory.[1] Cognitive load theory and schema (learning) theory go hand in hand in. Schemas are frameworks of information (like a steel-framed skyscraper in your mind); they start as very basic ("This is a cell") and become more ...


4

I found one study that looked at ASMR and the Default Mode Network (DNM). The DMN consists of the medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal gyri, bilateral inferior parietal cortices, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus. In the study, the DMN of 11 individuals with ASMR was compared with 11 controls. The DMN of individuals with ASMR showed ...


4

Short answer Attention can be quantified with a sustained attention to response task. Background I think with focus or concentration you mean sustained attention to a certain task. A sustained attention to response task (SART) (Silverstein & Palumbo, 1998) could be helpful to you (here is a free PsychoPy script). SART seems to be a reliable measure for ...


4

Short answer There is scientific evidence that boredom can increase error rates. Background My gut feeling would tell me that boredom decreases vigilance, which then would increase the chance of errors. Vigilance being defined as sustained attention (Oken, 2006). And indeed, vigilance has been directly linked to boredom, and more specifically, boredom ...


4

The answer lies in what is known of the conscious, unconscious and the presconscious parts of the mind, with preconscious is the scientific name for the subconscious, however, for the purposes of this answer and because of how the theory of hypnosis is put together, I will refer to the preconscious as the subconscious. When I was learning about the basis of ...


4

Cognitive dissonance is often a problem when trying to convince someone of your position. Depending on the subject matter and how closely the position is held for the opposing party it can be very difficult to follow even logical well reasoned arguments. The opposing party often has a framework of reality in which they make sense of various situations or ...


3

Digital Marketing often produces 'content' for users to consume. That content is ment to catch and keep the attention of the user, in an attempt to make the user trust and follow the sender (usually a website or blog). When the user shows engagement like clicking the right buttons, the user will somehow be tempted with some kind of offer (a newsletter, a ...


3

Q: Does distraction cause us to skip to the next step in a motor plan? A: It depends on the processes in progress, characteristics of the subject and characteristics of the signal to produce interference (based on an orientation reflex that is the beginning of an act of involuntary attention), many factors, mainly: Characteristics of the process involved ...


3

Short answer Symptoms of hemi-neglect are often accompanied by additional layers of cognitive deficits that make rehabilitation challenging. Logic reason is often dissociated from these patients' perceptions, or they simply dismiss there is a problem altogether. Background Hemineglect is the impaired or lost ability to react to, or process sensory stimuli ...


3

My short answer would be that there is no clear relationship between these two models about how visual information processing works in the brain. However, the terminology and evidence overlaps considerably which makes this confusing. One way to think about this is that the two models are explaining different stages of processing. The two visual streams is ...


3

Engle has published extensive papers about this topic and if you are interested I suggest looking him up. In 2001 Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle (In Engle, 2002) attempted to directly measure the relationship between WM and executive attention, and conclude that that the underlying factor responsible for the relationship between measures of WM ...


3

What you describe is rather common for a certain type of insomnia, called psychophysiologic. The patient has evidence of conditioned sleep difficulty and/ or heightened arousal in bed as indicated by excessive focus on, and heightened anxiety about, sleep; difficulty falling asleep in bed at the desired bedtime or during planned naps, but no ...


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