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"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of "...


17

Here are a few options. I have not tried them yet personally. As mentioned below, the rtdists package in R is able to fit both LBA and diffusion models. Other Options LBA Scott Brown has a copy of Donkin et al (2009) on his web page with some code in R, Excel, and WinBUGS for fitting the LBA model: http://www.newcl.org/publications/...


11

The basic approach that you are describing sounds like inverse efficiency scores (e.g., see Townsend and Ashby, 1978,1983), which are measured as $$\frac{r}{1-e} = \frac{r}{c}$$ where $r$ is reaction time, $e$ is proportion error, and $c$ is proportion correct. John Christie provides a critique of inverse efficiency scores here or see the discussion in ...


9

For the diffusion model, there is also Eric-Jan Wagenmakers' "EZ-diffusion model", which you can find here. This paper compares three different pieces of software for estimation of diffusion model parameters: von Ravenzwaaij D., & Oberauer, K. (2009). How to use the diffusion model: Parameter recovery of three methods: EZ, fast-dm, and DMAT. ...


9

A study that used the field setting you describe is done by Bateson et al. (2006). As for the mechanism, they write: we believe that images of eyes motivate cooperative behaviour because they induce a perception in participants of being watched. Although participants were not actually observed in either of our experimental conditions, the human ...


8

Yes! The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is widely used. From the IAPS instruction manual: The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is being developed to provide a set of normative emotional stimuli for experimental investigations of emotion and attention. The goal is to develop a large set of standardized, emotionally-...


8

You might look for examples in the Witt, Donnellan & Orlando (2011). They tested subject motivation in a psychology subject pool to see how it varied among groups. There may be follow up studies. Looking through similar studies will give you an idea of the kinds of things people use to assess. This is not a standardized line of research (yet). Witt, E. ...


8

I think it's a basic concept of experimental design that you have control groups. So for example, if you want to study the effect of X (e.g., a drug) on Y (e.g., performance), you could manipulate X (e.g., give half the drug and the other half no drug) and randomly assign the participants to either group. Random assignment is a strategy for making the groups ...


7

Ethics of Feedback: The APA's code of ethics (2010) as well as the Advisory Group on Conducting Research on the Internet (AGCRI) report (2004) summarize ethical issues related to conducting offline and online psychological research. Feedback is normal in psychological experiments, and researchers are encouraged to debrief participants, before, immediately ...


7

After researching this a bit more, I believe this is actually a biology question, not a physics one. The specific term I believe you're searching for is Trichromacy, which Wikipedia defines as: Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the condition of possessing three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different cone ...


7

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


7

Short answer Sub-vocalization can also be detected during cognitive demanding tasks other than reading. Background As far as I can see, most literature acknowledges sub-vocalizing as being only detectable by measuring the electrical nerve activity that drive the speech organs (e.g., Parnin (2011) and NASA Research). When people perform complex tasks, these ...


7

There are a few factors that could contribute to differences between online versus in-lab reaction time measurement. Hardware variation Participants in an online experiment will use their own computers to complete the task, which will result in lots of variation in hardware. Many studies have looked at how hardware variations affect response time ...


7

Chunking leverages long-term memory for the chunks, i.e. we recognize and remember much easier the familiar chunks, sometimes algorithmically. This is much easier explained in the domain of letters/words, e.g. we'd recognize USA as substring among random letters. Similarly most would recognize the pattern 1945 (WWII end) by paired association, or 12321 ...


6

Overview: It seems like quite a bit of research has been conducted with experience sampling methodologies looking at daily variations in mood and activity. It is an interesting question as to how best tease out the effect on mood of time of day per se and activities associated with time of day on variations. It also seems like there are individual ...


6

The three levels of the Stroop test you describe are the following: Congruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli alternated with the Reverse Stroop effect


6

The experiment you are referring to is usually called the ultimatum game, and was first experimentally tested by Güth, Schmittberger, and Schwarze in 1982 [1]. [1] Güth, Werner, Rolf Schmittberger, and Bernd Schwarze. "An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 3.4 (1982): 367-388. PDF


6

This is not exactly my area, but I suspect it simply may not be anyone's area. It is not clear from the research literature that speaking rhythmically does help get into a trance, mostly because it is not currently clear that "trance" is distinct from other forms of dissociation (though dissociation is often confusingly described as "trance-...


6

There are many granulations of the objective-subjective distinction. The most objective would be the behaviorism which says it is meaningless to reason about anything except how environmental stimulus leads directly to observed behavior. This camp was popular in psychology during the time of B.F. Skinner, but now is seldom followed by people outside of ...


6

I recently completed a study involving physical ergonomics of rifles. We monitored heart rate and respiration using the Zephyr BioHarness. It seemed to work pretty well. It also monitors movement of the user, if that is of interest to you. To get data out, it is possible to compile a report and export it to CSV, which works well if you need to do ...


6

In short: none that I could find. Indeed, it's a very one-way relationship - the more you drink the worse reaction time gets. However, there is a starting point, which is generally put around .02-.06 depending on your chosen study - below that threshold the effect of BAL on reaction times is difficult to pin down. Most studies I found showed that below .05% ...


6

It's a little unclear to me from what you've said that your efforts are truly affecting your brother's ideas. It's also unclear whether those ideas are objectively bad, or whether you should be trying to change them. In general, we have to be careful to avoid recommending specific actions for specific people here. That being said, the general phenomenon you ...


6

Visual acuity is highest in the foveal region, namely around 1/60 of a degree, or 1 minute of arc (1 MAR). At about 30 degrees of eccentricity, visual acuity is reduced to anywhere between 1.5 and 10 MAR when determined by a shape recognition task, as shown in Fig. 1 taken from Lie, 1980: A later study (Anderson et al., 1991) shows the following picture: ...


6

In the cited paper their methodology is explained in the Materials and Methods section on p.209, where it says: Fig. 4 shows the norm of the CoP during the experiment [...] which are represented by spikes in the norm of the CoP [...] In order to characterize the movement properties of the CoP, we have computed the corresponding spectra over the ...


6

It depends on the types of changes you are looking to make. In general, my experience has been that changes to a response scale can be done with minimal threats to validity (e.g. looking to change the 4 item Likert type scale to a 6 item Likert type scale). On the other hand, changing question wording itself usually can't be done "without losing validity" (...


6

ANOVA and t-tests are statistical tests for significance and therefore quantitative. The other mentioned items are scales (adding numbers to a certain choice) and therefore they can be considered as ordinal scales, and hence as quantitative as they are based on numbers. The NASA one can be administered by using a sliding scale which can be considered to ...


6

It's important to distinguish between measures and analyses, because only analyses can be quantitative or qualitative, not measures. Measures are, essentially, systematic processes by which we acquire our data, and analyses are processes we use to look at the data. As a rule of thumb, the difference is not hard to find and is given in the name: ...


6

The relevant section 8.03 in the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct does not employ a proper term. In the literature, »deception/deceptive study/experiment/method(s)« are sometimes used, however not in the sense of a technical term – most often the matter is paraphrased as in »studies that use deception«. The Milgram experiment(s) ...


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