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"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of "...


8

You might look for examples in the Witt, Donnellan & Orlando (2011). They tested subject motivation in a psychology subject pool to see how it varied among groups. There may be follow up studies. Looking through similar studies will give you an idea of the kinds of things people use to assess. This is not a standardized line of research (yet). Witt, E. ...


8

I think it's a basic concept of experimental design that you have control groups. So for example, if you want to study the effect of X (e.g., a drug) on Y (e.g., performance), you could manipulate X (e.g., give half the drug and the other half no drug) and randomly assign the participants to either group. Random assignment is a strategy for making the groups ...


7

Ethics of Feedback: The APA's code of ethics (2010) as well as the Advisory Group on Conducting Research on the Internet (AGCRI) report (2004) summarize ethical issues related to conducting offline and online psychological research. Feedback is normal in psychological experiments, and researchers are encouraged to debrief participants, before, immediately ...


7

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


7

There are a few factors that could contribute to differences between online versus in-lab reaction time measurement. Hardware variation Participants in an online experiment will use their own computers to complete the task, which will result in lots of variation in hardware. Many studies have looked at how hardware variations affect response time ...


7

There is a lot going on in your question. QUEST, as well as many other adaptive procedures, is well suited for a task like estimating morph distance in a 2-AFC paradigm. There are, however, a couple of points in your question, that make me think QUEST is not a good paradigm. The QUEST paradigm is designed around setting the signal level to find the the "...


6

The three levels of the Stroop test you describe are the following: Congruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli alternated with the Reverse Stroop effect


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In short: none that I could find. Indeed, it's a very one-way relationship - the more you drink the worse reaction time gets. However, there is a starting point, which is generally put around .02-.06 depending on your chosen study - below that threshold the effect of BAL on reaction times is difficult to pin down. Most studies I found showed that below .05% ...


6

It's a little unclear to me from what you've said that your efforts are truly affecting your brother's ideas. It's also unclear whether those ideas are objectively bad, or whether you should be trying to change them. In general, we have to be careful to avoid recommending specific actions for specific people here. That being said, the general phenomenon you ...


6

Visual acuity is highest in the foveal region, namely around 1/60 of a degree, or 1 minute of arc (1 MAR). At about 30 degrees of eccentricity, visual acuity is reduced to anywhere between 1.5 and 10 MAR when determined by a shape recognition task, as shown in Fig. 1 taken from Lie, 1980: A later study (Anderson et al., 1991) shows the following picture: ...


6

In the cited paper their methodology is explained in the Materials and Methods section on p.209, where it says: Fig. 4 shows the norm of the CoP during the experiment [...] which are represented by spikes in the norm of the CoP [...] In order to characterize the movement properties of the CoP, we have computed the corresponding spectra over the ...


6

Short answer Sub-vocalization can also be detected during cognitive demanding tasks other than reading. Background As far as I can see, most literature acknowledges sub-vocalizing as being only detectable by measuring the electrical nerve activity that drive the speech organs (e.g., Parnin (2011) and NASA Research). When people perform complex tasks, these ...


6

It depends on the types of changes you are looking to make. In general, my experience has been that changes to a response scale can be done with minimal threats to validity (e.g. looking to change the 4 item Likert type scale to a 6 item Likert type scale). On the other hand, changing question wording itself usually can't be done "without losing validity" (...


6

ANOVA and t-tests are statistical tests for significance and therefore quantitative. The other mentioned items are scales (adding numbers to a certain choice) and therefore they can be considered as ordinal scales, and hence as quantitative as they are based on numbers. The NASA one can be administered by using a sliding scale which can be considered to ...


6

It's important to distinguish between measures and analyses, because only analyses can be quantitative or qualitative, not measures. Measures are, essentially, systematic processes by which we acquire our data, and analyses are processes we use to look at the data. As a rule of thumb, the difference is not hard to find and is given in the name: ...


6

The relevant section 8.03 in the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct does not employ a proper term. In the literature, »deception/deceptive study/experiment/method(s)« are sometimes used, however not in the sense of a technical term – most often the matter is paraphrased as in »studies that use deception«. The Milgram experiment(s) ...


6

What makes a task a two alternative forced choice task? I am beginning my answer with this question because there is a general misconception about what 2AFC really means. Many people believe that 2AFC refers to any task where subjects are asked to select one of two options (yes/no, old/new, bright/dim). However what defines it instead is that there are two ...


6

Chunking leverages long-term memory for the chunks, i.e. we recognize and remember much easier the familiar chunks, sometimes algorithmically. This is much easier explained in the domain of letters/words, e.g. we'd recognize USA as substring among random letters. Similarly most would recognize the pattern 1945 (WWII end) by paired association, or 12321 ...


5

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.


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Your question was a loooooong time ago, but I just ran across a couple of good references explaining what backward masking does and how to choose one. This(1) is a great paper examining the neural mechanisms and timing of visual backward masking; according to this (2) 2000 review of masking theory, there are four subtypes of backward masking. Backward ...


5

A method that could help increase both experimental compliance as well as quantify it could be as follows: Take a quiz to measure subjects' self-perceived levels of obedience Perform experiment normally Take another test to measure current self-perceived levels of obedience Although the initial test may significantly alter levels of compliance as questions ...


5

The size parameter in your code simply means the size of the patch, i. e. the interval in x and y over which you sample your Gabor function. What you are thinking of is the support of the function, i. e. the interval where it is noticeably different from 0. This is determined by the sigma parameter, which is the bandwidth of the Gaussian. So if you just ...


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Disclaimer: These are my preferences, biased by my own research experience. In general, I am not a fan of block designs. Blocking introduces difficulty in comparing both neural and behavioural activity between blocks due to effects of practice, fatigue, adaptation, learning, boredom, muscle tension and possibly others. It is of course possible to counter-...


5

It really depends on what you mean by difference in pitch. Subjects can discriminate differences in frequency for very short tones, but it does not mean they are being perceived as pitch differences. The classic paper in this area is Moore (1973): As the duration is reduced from 200 ms to 6.25 ms, performance falls off, especially for low frequency tones. ...


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If the researcher randomly samples individuals from the population of interest and randomly assigns them to different experimental treatments, then it is a true experiment. Quasi-experimental design occurs when there is no random assignment to treatments. In general, true experiments can make claims about causality. Since all subjects in the experiment are ...


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when it comes to psychology it feels to me a bit like astrology, where there are some things that can work, but mostly because of auto-suggestion, or any other kind of suggestions, and things like the placebo (or even the nocebo) effect. So, I wonder if psychology is a science and why so many people rely on it. A key point is that your question seems to be ...


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