20

"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of "...


17

Here are a few options. I have not tried them yet personally. As mentioned below, the rtdists package in R is able to fit both LBA and diffusion models. Other Options LBA Scott Brown has a copy of Donkin et al (2009) on his web page with some code in R, Excel, and WinBUGS for fitting the LBA model: http://www.newcl.org/publications/...


16

There is currently a lot of debate surrounding what questions Bayesian modeling is appropriate for answering within cognitive science, as well what makes a "poor model." Unfortunately these become extremely thorny issues very quickly, partly because what is called "bayesian modeling" actually refers to a rather heterogeneous set of approaches and ...


11

Veridicality is a term used in cognitive science; it is the degree to which your internal representation of the world accurately reflects the external world. Some background Since the work on Humberto Maturana in color perception, it was considered very important to not always focus on the fact that there is some external stimuli to be cognized by the ...


11

I've studied this a little bit within the context of timing responses to personality test items. General models of reading speed look at both the time to read the words as well as to comprehend. From memory, eye tracking studies have shown how the eyes will often back track to confusing parts of a sentence (apologies for lack of reference). Some general ...


11

The basic approach that you are describing sounds like inverse efficiency scores (e.g., see Townsend and Ashby, 1978,1983), which are measured as $$\frac{r}{1-e} = \frac{r}{c}$$ where $r$ is reaction time, $e$ is proportion error, and $c$ is proportion correct. John Christie provides a critique of inverse efficiency scores here or see the discussion in ...


10

@CHCH has provided a good broad overview, but I thought I would also append some specific experiments that are considered to be a weakness of Bayesian models. The whole theme of this answer is an extension of Tversky and Kahneman's program of rationality-violation. All of these experiments can be fitted by some Bayesian-ish just-so model of the sort Bowers &...


10

This is an experiment testing the Stroop effect, named after John Ridley Stroop who studied it in 1935, and often called a Stroop experiment. It is a classic and well understood experiment and has now become a neuropsychological test for use in clinical settings, usually called the Stroop test.


9

Programs/packages for EEG analysis There are decent MatLab toolboxes with good tutorials for for the analysis of EEG data. The EEGLAB toolbox (tutorial) can be operated by both GUI and command-line (and script). The fieldtrip toolbox (tutorial) is mainly operated by command line / script. Of course there are also (commercial) software packages for EEG ...


9

For the diffusion model, there is also Eric-Jan Wagenmakers' "EZ-diffusion model", which you can find here. This paper compares three different pieces of software for estimation of diffusion model parameters: von Ravenzwaaij D., & Oberauer, K. (2009). How to use the diffusion model: Parameter recovery of three methods: EZ, fast-dm, and DMAT. ...


9

A study that used the field setting you describe is done by Bateson et al. (2006). As for the mechanism, they write: we believe that images of eyes motivate cooperative behaviour because they induce a perception in participants of being watched. Although participants were not actually observed in either of our experimental conditions, the human ...


8

OpenSesame is a recent entry that is cross-platform and seems to promote GUI-based design while allowing customization via Python scripting. It can be found at their website (link above). A recent article has references and summarizes 16 other tools as well (including some reported in the other stackexchange responses). I found great video tutorials and ...


8

Disclaimer: As you have noted yourself, there aren't very many scientific researches on the topic. The only main points that I can derive are generally of blogs or sketchy speculations. As such, you are supposed to take this answer with a grain of salt. Interesting Thing of the Day notes that polyphasic sleep may make the person awake and alert but have ...


8

Yes! The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is widely used. From the IAPS instruction manual: The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is being developed to provide a set of normative emotional stimuli for experimental investigations of emotion and attention. The goal is to develop a large set of standardized, emotionally-...


8

You might look for examples in the Witt, Donnellan & Orlando (2011). They tested subject motivation in a psychology subject pool to see how it varied among groups. There may be follow up studies. Looking through similar studies will give you an idea of the kinds of things people use to assess. This is not a standardized line of research (yet). Witt, E. ...


8

I think it's a basic concept of experimental design that you have control groups. So for example, if you want to study the effect of X (e.g., a drug) on Y (e.g., performance), you could manipulate X (e.g., give half the drug and the other half no drug) and randomly assign the participants to either group. Random assignment is a strategy for making the groups ...


7

I'm not aware of a comprehensive resource that details all of this information for all of these tests. A simple solution would be to find a specific reference for each of the tests you're interested in. A good place to start looking for these references might be The Cognitive Atlas, which has a Tasks section. For example, the page about Digit/Symbol coding ...


7

If you really wanted to know you could use models of reading behaviour - e.g. EZ-Reader or Swift. The Rayner reviews are the classic go-to to outlne this kind of thing: Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006) (Vol. 62, pp. 1457-506). It will ...


7

I would first like to discuss the concept of lateralization and clear up a common misconception about hemispheric dominance. "A brain is considered to be asymmetrical (or lateralized) if one side (hemisphere or other brain region) is structurally different from the other and/or performs a different set of functions." (Bisazza et al., 1998). A good ...


7

Ethics of Feedback: The APA's code of ethics (2010) as well as the Advisory Group on Conducting Research on the Internet (AGCRI) report (2004) summarize ethical issues related to conducting offline and online psychological research. Feedback is normal in psychological experiments, and researchers are encouraged to debrief participants, before, immediately ...


7

I use the FieldTrip toolbox in Matlab to analyze my own modified auditory MMN experiment :) But I use MEG, so I don't have that many software options. The toolbox is very powerful but it has a steep learning curve and I would recommend it only if you already have both Matlab and EEG data analysis experience. I don't analyze my data in the classical MMN way ...


7

After researching this a bit more, I believe this is actually a biology question, not a physics one. The specific term I believe you're searching for is Trichromacy, which Wikipedia defines as: Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the condition of possessing three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different cone ...


7

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


7

There are a few factors that could contribute to differences between online versus in-lab reaction time measurement. Hardware variation Participants in an online experiment will use their own computers to complete the task, which will result in lots of variation in hardware. Many studies have looked at how hardware variations affect response time ...


7

Chunking leverages long-term memory for the chunks, i.e. we recognize and remember much easier the familiar chunks, sometimes algorithmically. This is much easier explained in the domain of letters/words, e.g. we'd recognize USA as substring among random letters. Similarly most would recognize the pattern 1945 (WWII end) by paired association, or 12321 ...


6

Great question. There are two software packages that might be interesting to you: I have tried to run EPrime in a virtual machine on my Mac and it was a catastrophe. As I found out it used to work, but some of the later updates made it impossible. In the process of figuring this out, I came across PsyScope X. It is an actively developed open source ...


6

The three levels of the Stroop test you describe are the following: Congruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli alternated with the Reverse Stroop effect


6

It's obvious that people will move more when awake or doing exercise compared to being asleep or resting, however actigraphy provides a quantitative way to measure that. Therefore actigraphy is useful for studying sleep-wake cycles, activity-rest cycles and circadian rhythms. They have been shown to be reliable in determining when a subject is awake or ...


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