What psychological constructs best model friendships, and what are some common classic and contemporary academic literature on the subject?

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ You appear to have asked and answered a question in the same post which is non-standard for Stack Exchange. Could I suggest that you reframe your post as a question, perhaps "What are the best methods to get closer to people", or "What techniques best enable you to get more friends", or "What psychological constructs best model friendships". You are free to answer your own question as you have. By asking a question, you then allow others to effectively contribute. $\endgroup$
    – Tony Mobbs
    Aug 26, 2020 at 13:50
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks, Tony. I've already reframed the post as you suggested. $\endgroup$ Aug 26, 2020 at 20:36

2 Answers 2


A few learned works on friendship:

Berndt (2002) observed that friendships can be classified as prized or troubled. The characteristics of which are:

  • Prized friendships: intimacy, loyalty, supporting, helping, sharing, praising, encouraging. and bolstering.

  • Troubled friendships: conflicts, dominating, and rivalry.

Berndt's analysis can be summarised visually according to the atlas of personality, emotion and behaviour (Mobbs, 2020):

enter image description here

Interestingly (but perhaps not surprisingly), friendship appears to closely align to the Agreeableness dimension of the Five Factor Model.



Here are some related resources:

Classic: Carnegie, D. (1964). How to win friends and influence people. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Modern Educational: infed.org. (2013, May 9). Friendship theory: some philosophical and sociological themes – infed.org: Education, Community-Building and Change. https://infed.org/mobi/friendship-some-philosophical-and-sociological-themes/

Modern with Minimal Academic Credibility: Wikipedia contributors. (2020, August 8). Friendship. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendship

Modern Casual: Friends. 2020. Psychology Today. Retrieved Aug 25, 2020, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/friends

Concise: friend. 2020. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved Aug 25, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/friend


Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.