There are studies that looked explicitly at confidence and performance. There is a well-known relationship between confidence and performance: the less skilled people are, the less calibrated their confidence is (they are less able to estimate whether they are correct or not), and the more overconfident they tend to be. It's sad, it means that the less knowledgeable people don't even realize they are not knowledgeable.
You can also draw conclusions indirectly from the psychosocial literature and for example the well established "stereotype threat" effect. Members of minority groups with a negative stereotype do not perform well when they are explicitly tested on that stereotype (e.g. African Americans on IQ tests, women on math tests, etc). But they perform as well as other groups if they are told the same test is testing something else; and they perform poorly on a tests that actually test something else if they are told it is about their stereotype. You can speculate that negative stereotypes decrease confidence and reduce performance.
There are also more studies you could draw on, for example showing that wrong feedbacks reduce learning rate etc. But at the top of my head, I can't think of a study that tested your precise question (if confidence boosts performance). My understanding of the confidence/decision-making literature is that the answer is no. What matters most is to have a well calibrated confidence (being confident when you are right, and not confident when you are wrong). Being underconfident (e.g. due to a stereotype), harms your performance, but being overconfident too.
Lichtenstein, S., & Fischhoff, B. (1977). Do those who know more also know more about how much they know?. Organizational behavior and human performance, 20(2), 159-183.
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69(5), 797.