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62

Yes, writing increases the modality and attention given to a piece of information. Increasing the effort and the ways that you have experienced a bit of information helps you encode that information better; this is Elaborative Encoding. More generally the more deeply you process a thing the more likely you are to properly encode the memory for future ...


29

I'm going to disagree with Ben here. My colleague Adam Putnam has spent several years researching whether it's best for memory to speak, write, or even think particular responses out loud. His research has continued to turn up no differences between these different modalities, despite what we know about transfer-appropriate processing and elaborative ...


13

The speech error taxonomy on Wikipedia that Jeromy Anglim links to in his answer is pretty comprehensive. If you're interested in learning more, I would suggest reading some articles by Gary Dell (e.g., Dell, 1986). He is, in my opinion, the expert in this domain. He has used neural networks to explain speech errors of different types. When mentally ...


10

A recent senior thesis by Schoen (2012) addressed this exact question. Students watched a filmed lecture and were randomly assigned to take notes with either by typing or handwriting. After the lecture, students were given a few distractor tasks, and then given a retention test. Other students were assigned to take notes from a textbook, instead of a lecture....


5

Leonardo da Vinci wrote both upside down, and in a mirror image. He did the latter partly to make it harder for others to read his journals and copy his ideas (he was doing his research in a time when it was forbidden by the church), but also to avoid smudging his writing. He was also left-handed. Here is someone who also writes upside down and backwards. ...


4

While you are probably better to ask your question over at the AI Stack Exchange for more practical answers on how to accomplish the task, I would also suggest you could take a look into the topics on Wikipedia for Sociolinguistics, and also Language and gender for the underlying theories as to why Machine learning models are able to make guesses/predictions ...


4

This phenomena is much more common than most people realize. I have been working with several elementary students over the last three years who could not read and write conventionally, but can do so easily when the book/paper is upside down. My wife and I also recently conducted an interview with a 74 year old retired reading teacher who discloses that ...


4

A few thoughts (this is not my area): This article on speech errors on Wikipedia is informative. The article provides a review types of speech errors. The classification of speech errors is presumably similar to writing errors. What I take from the article, and other research on errors, is that there is plenty of structure to errors. I think an information ...


3

The behavioral output itself can only indirectly affect memory, but the mechanism of reinforcement lies in its reception of attention. For instance, athletes who practice a sport seriously know, as also popularly attested by Mack and Cassteven's Mind Gym, that 50% of practice should be mental. They should watch the sport, imagine playing the sport, think ...


3

When lefties write left to right they face three difficulties: They risk smudging what they have already written The natural way to hold a pen means it is likely to dig in to the paper, rather than be drawn across it. They tend to slope the letters backwards. I don't really understand why, but righties can demonstrate this for themselves by writing lefty ...


2

As an addition to Jeromy's answer, I would like to point out that I sometimes think of them as muscle memory flaws. I have no evidence to back this up, but I'll explain my reasoning. The suffix 'ble' is quite common in English language, so when you type the 'bl' for ('bly' in 'possibly'), without thinking you add the 'e' instead of the 'y', because your ...


2

We have been studying behavioral and neural mechanisms of upside-down writing and reading in a case of a young left-handed women who writes and draws upside-down only. Apart from some interesting spatial processing results (superior in some tasks) we have no explanation so far. We did discover, however, that this phenomenon is much more common than hitherto ...


2

So basically [for me] this question is whether there exists a learning model informed by the structure and usage of the Chinese writing. The answer is yes, see for example Loach & Wang (2016): The question we address is the optimum order in which Chinese characters should be learned. There are two orders that make intuitive sense: in order of ...


2

The second question (normality) is somewhat easier to answer because it depends less on the exact measures used. reading and writing abilities are normally distributed in the general education framework. Meaning for people who are actually schooled and tested (in the US for the above study). The sample for the above was "316 boys and girls who were ...


2

The brain is an interconnected whole, when we have high activity in one area of the brain other connected parts are affected. The writting is mostly controlled by the part of the brain that controls movement (lateral and medial precentral, motor cingulate and primary motor cortices, and postcentral gyrus). Research revealed that there is a direct path ...


2

I can't think of any information relating directly to distiction of letters in the english Alphabet, so instead I pulled out some stuff on our corrolations between shapes and long/short term memory: Abstract In four experiments, we examined the effect of pairing colors with either homogeneous or heterogeneous shapes on a short-term memory task. In ...


1

Well, it turns out there is some related research, but there are complications because spelling & writing is harder to investigate (compared to syllogisms, for instance)... Spelling relies on two sets of processes, depending on word frequency (for a review, see Tainturier and Rapp, 2001; Bonin, 2003). For frequent words, the letter sequence is ...


1

TLDR: if it's a "graphotactic" mistake that children could make (and it is), adults could make it under time pressure, distraction etc. A technical term for your kind of error is "phonologically plausible error" (PPE) This is rather speculative, but I suspect that having two different spelling sets/rules for things that sound the same is the main reason. ...


1

Spaced repetition is based off the forgetting curve. Each review per day strengthens the memory: Both Anki flashcards and SuperMemo also utilize the Leitner (box) system: (Animation by Zirguezi - CC0.) Other freeware, such as Cram or Quizlet, do not have these enhanced features. They're more for the quick and dirty academic game. The material is only ...


1

Thing is, when we look at something for a while, it influences us to, in some ways, follow it. If I am not mistaken, a similar principle works for yawning and how a person can yawn just by looking at someone else who does. I wish to elucidate with a personal experience. In my high school, there was this girl with amazing handwriting. I got down with the pox ...


1

There has been some recorded research in this area from more than 150 years back (1858). The concept is called Bilateral transfer of learning. Definition: "Bilateral transfer is an aspect of the transfer of learning and is the transfer of learning or performance from one side of the body after training to the other. So, for example, after training a task ...


1

John Fields in his 2003 psycholinguistics textbooks says: Note that the there -> their example is not a spelling error - the writer is fully aware of the difference between the two forms; but, under the pressure of writing, one form (often the more frequent one) is substituted for the other. And he is correct about the relative corpus frequency of ...


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