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Is there any evidence of malleability of fluid intelligence? In the downward direction, definitely yes. There are many ways you can directly pull fluid intelligence downwards. Things like being exposed to much lead, suffering from iodine deficiency (especially a developing fetus during pregnancy, see e.g. (Qian et al, 2005)), or by not getting decent ...


8

There is a huge body of literature on emotion regulation. The main person to look up is James Gross. He's recently published a second edition of the Handbook of Emotion Regulation if you'd like a comprehensive review of the field. He also just published a target article in Psychological Inquiry about the present status of emotion regulation research and ...


6

Chunking leverages long-term memory for the chunks, i.e. we recognize and remember much easier the familiar chunks, sometimes algorithmically. This is much easier explained in the domain of letters/words, e.g. we'd recognize USA as substring among random letters. Similarly most would recognize the pattern 1945 (WWII end) by paired association, or 12321 ...


5

This article explains the difference : Declarative memory takes the form of a semantic net linking propositions, images, and sequences by associations. The nodes of long-term memory all have some degree of activation and working memory is that part of long-term memory that is most highly activated. The declarative memory is all knowledge that ...


5

Takeuchi et al. (2011) had participants in an fMRI perform three tasks in order to measure creativity, working memory and intelligence. S-A creativity test as a measure of creativity (Society For Creative Minds, 1969). Verbal n-back as a measure of working memory (Calicott et al., 1999). Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrix as a measure of intelligence (...


5

Conway et al. (2005) gives a really nice overview of tasks to measure working memory capacity (WMC). I would refer to that publication for details about the tasks. I'll summarize two tasks below that are related to your question. Verbal Working Memory. A classic way to measure verbal working memory is a reading span task. The task involves presenting ...


5

The neural substrates most involved in retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) appear to be the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (VLPFC) (Bäuml, Pastötter and Hanslmayr, 2010). I will not pretend to one-up their concise summation of the evidence. The results are consistent ...


5

The distinction between these terms is a matter of ongoing empirical research. They form part of a set of potential taxonomical categorizations of visual memory (VM). So far proposed sub-parts of VM include: Iconic (or sensory) memory, short-term (VSTM), fragile short-term (fVSTM), working memory (VWM), and long-term (VLTM) memory. The distinction between ...


5

Focused attention meditation practices improve focus in the long term. So the improvement is difficult to asses and could probably only be found in a standardized test setting. Physical exercise however has been demonstrated to improve mental abilities in the short term (after recovery of physical exercise) levels of circulating neurotransmitter stay ...


5

Short answer Over-thinking Background Unconscious recall of information can be more effective than conscious recall of that same information. Disruption of the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (by TMS) improved image-recall in healthy subjects (source: UC Santa Barbara). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with executive functions ...


5

it will be tricky to study your own improvement in working memory and I wouldn't suggest it! There is substantial research showing that although training can improve performance on specific cognitive tasks (near transfer), there's not too much evidence that a broad construct like working memory can be enhanced by training in the long term (if ever) (Towards ...


4

There's a huge amount of perspectives you could take in answering a question like this, but I would like to approach it from the perspective of dual process theories (see the Evans, 2008 Annual Review paper for an outline). I'm not going to reference this answer much beyond that, because almost all the information is adapted from this review, with some ...


4

Just a few words on mnemonics before answering your question. I have been practicing for two years. First because I was impressed how easy it was to remember items using these techniques. My personal best time for learning the order of 52 cards is 1min 40s, which is not really good compared to real competitors, but the point is that practicing 30min a day ...


4

Wilhelm 2013 What is working memory capacity, and how can we measure it? Complex span tasks (Cspan) reading span task (Kane et al. 2004) operation span task The rotation span task (Shah & Miyake 1996, adapted from Kane et al. 2004) Updating tasks (Updating) (e.g., Miyake et al., 2000) The verbal updating task In the numerical updating task the spatial-...


4

Just did some more reading, going to answer my own question: Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to mental operations that an individual uses when faced with a relatively novel task that cannot be performed automatically. Inductive and deductive reasoning are generally thought to be the hallmark narrow-ability indicators of Gf. Examples of Gf abilities are: ...


4

Short answer: Based on my assessment of the literature, I would say that a vague hint leaves room for retrieval practice, and will therefore likely elicit a testing effect. An obvious hint does not, and will therefore likely help recognition, but not recall. Background Spaced repetition refers to the practice of combining two well-known memory effects, ...


4

According to this article, yes it does have various symptoms including cognitive deficiencies that make us more prone to errors and less efficient : Circadian rhythms biologically program us to stay awake during daylight hours and sleep at night. Shift work goes directly against what our bodies desire to do, and those that struggle with this may ...


3

Yes, they do, but not all of these are different methods for testing memory. Because of the way you've set up the stimulus presentation here, these are effectively all serial verbal working memory tests where the neurocognitive basis may differ or not depending on a number of unstated factors such as stimulus modality or type (e.g., Polyn et al., 2005), ...


3

There are a few commercial packages that provide training for verbal and visuo-spaital working memory. The most well-known is CogMed (http://www.cogmed.com). Another popular one is Jungle Memory (http://junglememory.com). Both of these packages have been used in research studies (comment about these results below) There is also a myriad of online working ...


3

Short answer: It does not make sense to talk about 'bridging' implicit and explicit memory. Longer answer: Explicitness and implicitness of memory is most appropriately considered a property of the memory test, not the memory being tested. Memories, physically speaking, have both explicit and implicit properties. They are 'bridged' by default. The ...


3

To add to Arnon's answer, modality-specific working memory capacity (WMC) does correlate within individuals, so in some cases, you could certainly predict one from the other. As long as dumb prediction is all you're interested in, why not? The problem with making that prediction is that it's very difficult to interpret what it means in causal or practical ...


3

How working memory breaks down, or even whether it is a valid construct at all, is still somewhat controversial. The evidence for domain-specific modalities is largely based on the (lack of otherwise expected) interference between them. Another line of evidence that could be used to validate this model is checking the correlations between them: A high ...


3

There is research showing that Black Cab taxi drivers while training with 'the knowledge' (2 months on a moped with an A-Z, learning every road/route in London) grew larger areas of brain grey matter concerned with memory. Therefore it cannot be fixed and fillable, neuroplasticity will grow more where required. Although this is not the reference I was ...


3

No, the distinction is real, not arbitrary. Implicit and explicit memory show different hallmark behavioral characteristics. A good overview of the difference between explicit and implicit memory is available in the MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. The wikipedia page on implicit memory also has some useful information. Perhaps the most important ...


3

Engle has published extensive papers about this topic and if you are interested I suggest looking him up. In 2001 Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle (In Engle, 2002) attempted to directly measure the relationship between WM and executive attention, and conclude that that the underlying factor responsible for the relationship between measures of WM ...


3

Work in progress - What is the relationship between the different types of working memory or short-term memory and other types of reasoning abilities (non-working memory reasoning tasks including verbal ability, numerical, spatial, etc.)? Are the different measures of short-term and working memory measuring approximately the same thing? This is a good ...


3

IQ is not the same as working memory (either visual or non-visual). IQ is deprecated in favor of the term general intelligence (g). Education improves g, but not by much; only about one point per year of education (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445388/), where about 15 points are a standard deviation. Many things affect general intelligence ...


3

I must begin by stressing that while this is an interesting question, it is also very complex (much like memory itself). Similar to other areas of Cognitive Psychology, depending on which expert you ask, you might get different explanations. My background is in prospective memory and cognitive psychology, and this is how I would address this question. I ...


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