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Short answer Continuous activation of the reward system leads to habituation and hence a downregulation of the pleasure feelings. Further, a continuous euphoric state is a potentially harmful state, as behaviors essential to life are undermined. Background I'm having some difficulty what you mean with a brain fooling itself. A brain cannot fool itself. ...


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Psychology and physiology are at different levels of explanation or levels of analysis. The answer depends entirely on how you view the relationship between such levels and in particular (mental) causality within and between levels. As this is still heavily debated, this metaphysical consideration is a precursor for giving a more specific answer to your ...


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For experimental purposes, an electrode array or comparable 2D device can be mounted and re-mounted on the same spot by using visual markers, e.g. with water resistant ink. By using a matrix of actuators with a back and front, and a clearly defined "up and down" (and/or left and right) one could suffice by just two little spots on the skin. Alternatively, ...


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It generally helps to provide some sort of specification as to how well you want to control the timing. There are 4 orders of magnitude difference between the 100 ms timing accuracy required for auditory and visual stimuli to be judged simultaneous (Zampini et al. 2005) and the 0.1 ms timing accuracy required for binaural stimuli to be judged simultaneous (...


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For auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) the click rate can be really high, as the auditory system is exceptionally fast, in the order of tens of stimuli per second (e.g., Rodriguez et al (2010. This will still yield a good ABR. At around 40 ms, the transient ABR shifts toward a steady state response, in which peaks of the previous ABR start to overlap with ...


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In neurophysiology we refer to "efference copy". In short, efference copy is when the brain area that sends a signal to cause a movement also sends some "copy" of that signal to the sensory part of the brain. This copy signal helps the sensory brain areas predict what to expect from your own movements, and therefore lets your perception ...


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Use the MAPS https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26255051 You can request from Auburn Univeristy


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Short answer Stimulus frequency does not matter too much for electrical neural stimulation. Background The frequency of electrical stimulation does not need to be in the same ball park as the physiological stimulus impinging normally on a tactile skin receptor. This, because the normal route of stimulation is bypassed and the axons can be activated directly ...


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The synchronization of sensory information is called multisensory integration: Multisensory integration, also known as multimodal integration, is the study of how information from the different sensory modalities (such as sight, sound, touch, smell, self-motion, and taste) may be integrated by the nervous system. This is the most salient example of ...


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Short answer The brain actively integrates and synchronizes sensory inputs, up to the point that it actually delays one modality to match it with another. Background Your question is all about intersensory asynchrony and sensory integration. A well-known example where the two stimulus modalities you mention in your question (light and sound) are perceived ...


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This may be difficult (close to impossible) in the social sciences to create an experiment that isolates one group so that that they are not exposed to violence for a long period of time (more than a few days). But, an important question. For example, its common for research in this area to examine the influence of community violence on externalizing ...


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Maybe this is not what you expected, but since you mentioned electro-magnetic stimulation, I'd like to mention optogentics, where light (electro-magnetic waves) are used to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.


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I'd like to check the limits of visibility of a (presumably green) LED at large (kilometer) distance, and I'm assuming that modulation of intensity (blinking) or position ("wiggling") would make the same brightness noticeable at larger distances than a steady, stationary point of light. If you want to 'do the math' Wikipedia provides this webpage ...


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If I understand your question correctly, electro-magnetic stimulation is really quite the same thing as magnetic stimulation. Typical transcranial magnetic stimulation devices use a large conductive loop, or sometimes 2 loops, and run large amounts of electric current through them. This causes a strong magnetic field to be produced. This magnetic field can ...


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