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Short answer Continuous activation of the reward system leads to habituation and hence a downregulation of the pleasure feelings. Further, a continuous euphoric state is a potentially harmful state, as behaviors essential to life are undermined. Background I'm having some difficulty what you mean with a brain fooling itself. A brain cannot fool itself. ...


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As of 2018, is it possible to induce pleasure in humans by some intervention like sending electrical signals? Yes, it is possible and has been done, typically as DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) for various disorders: OCD and depression are a few examples where the brain are stimulated induced pleasure. (Synofzik, Schlaepfer & Fins 2012) Regarding "How ...


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Luckily there are not one but several brain areas that when stimulated call for repeat stimulation. That is a way how one can define pleasure, by the way. If stimulation of an area makes animal to want more it is pleasurable. If not - the animal will avoid the mechanism that triggers the stimulus - that defines an aversive stimulus. In the 7 affective ...


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To answer your question directly, there are so much different factors involved in addiction to games and movies, that I don't believe any study could cover the whole thing. We can, though, try to identify the factors that are different and study them individually. The fundamental difference between movies/series and games, the one thing that separates more ...


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This is related to the concept of utility of outcomes, as well as the idea of hedging in gambling. When you have a favorite sports team that you want to win, it's very similar to implicitly placing an emotional "bet" - if your team wins, you gain positive utility, while if they lose, you get negative utility. By betting against your desired outcome,...


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Food rewards are effective and safe to use in principle. But in practice...? The non-caveman term for the process of using consequences to modify behavior is operant conditioning, and the specific use of rewards is called positive reinforcement: Example: A father gives candy to his daughter when she tidies up her toys. If the frequency of picking up the ...


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Alas there's not much in the way of interventions that can curb impulsivity on the spot. Quoting from a somewhat dated but widely cited review, Moeller et al., 2001: Of the operant therapies used in treating individuals with impulsive-related disorders, contingency management procedures have received the most clinical and research attention. ...


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A bit of context In mammalian brains, a main neurotransmiter linked with reward is Dopamine. This molecule is produced in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and in the Substantia Nigra (SN). In a very famous study, Schultz recorded neurons in this two regions (at the time, we didn't really make the difference between them), and realised that the activity of ...


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The effect of dopamine signaling is one of the areas where computational neuroscience has provided insight into brain mechanisms, specifically via Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Based off this paper and PHD thesis from Dan Rasmussen, this first began with this publication from Schultz showing that dopamine acts as a reward signaler. From the abstract: ...


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dopamine release changes the nature of synaptic long term potentiation (ltp) thought to underly long term memory. see http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627305003971 for a paper i am familiar with, for an entry point to that field for a review article: http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v5/n6/abs/nrn1406.html see section titled "Dopamine ...


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