12

There are now many full-length books that focus on this deep, complex question about human nature/psychology and note newer/ongoing/active research in the area, some of it cited in them. Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Shermer and Gould Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud Park ...


10

@CHCH has provided a good broad overview, but I thought I would also append some specific experiments that are considered to be a weakness of Bayesian models. The whole theme of this answer is an extension of Tversky and Kahneman's program of rationality-violation. All of these experiments can be fitted by some Bayesian-ish just-so model of the sort Bowers &...


8

Perhaps people are attracted to these theories in part because of the inability for mainstream science to answer anomalies. The occasion of governmental lying, hiding of technology, and corruption, helps reinforce the idea that there exists real Science that is not known to the mainstream. In the absence of trust, people contemplate the ...


6

There are a couple of defence mechanisms that may fit the bill. Keep in mind that these defence mechanisms typically involve an unconscious denial of the problem - ie, they apply to people who don't admit to the problem in themselves. Projection: ... a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against unpleasant impulses by denying their ...


6

I believe these questions are dealt with by "support theory," the seminal publications being: Tversky, A., & Koehler, D. J. (1994). Support theory: A nonextensional representation of subjective probability. Psychological Review, 101(4), 547-566. Rottenstreich, Y., & Tversky, A. (1997). Unpacking, repacking, and anchoring: advances in support theory. ...


5

Decision-making or decision theory is its own subdiscipline under cognitive science (also often studied by statisticians, philosophers, economists, and faculty in business schools). Within this discipline, understanding how stress affects your behavior is very important and not understudied area. For a recent survey with a neurobiological focus, see: ...


5

The probability of conjunctive events (all six tosses are heads) are overestimated, relative to a single event of similar overall probability. This result has been shown by Paul Slovic, in an experiment that is described in its abstract as follows: This study examined the effects on the attractiveness of a gamble, of manipulating the number and ...


5

I don't think there's an official term for this kind of bluffing specifically, that's widely used. But Nixon's approach to the Soviet Union, to act in an exaggerated irrational manner to deter them from provoking the US, is sometimes referred to as the "Madman Strategy".


5

I know that Helen Fisher, who is a love researcher, has developed a four factor personality model where two of the factors are quite relevant to your question. See (Fisher et al, 2015) for some general information regarding the personality model. The two factors that are relevant to your question are called (1) analytical/tough-minded, and (2) Prosocial/...


4

You might be looking at cases of psychological projection, which is a method of denial in which people defend themselves from their own negative impulses by attributing them to others. In accordance with the theory, it is less a problem of 'defending' others from getting anywhere near the problem, and more an act of projecting the problem onto others, or ...


3

Research: Rationalization is a defence mechanism - a Freudian construct that is still in common use in clinical psychology, but no longer used much in research, so current studies about such mechanisms are hard to come by. To some degree, rationalization has been superseded by cognitive dissonance, and related self-perception theory. This is a more ...


2

In a paper published recently (actually, today) by myself and my 2 advisers, we analyze results of an auditory perceptual discrimination task, and show that the Bayesian model can be used to explain some aspects of behaviour, but not others. We provide a simple heuristic model that accounts for a wider range of phenomena in that task, such as the imperfect ...


2

Not a real explanation of why writing or cities appeared where they appeared but by that time humans had already spread to many parts of the world so I am not sure there is any particular need to explain why they did not appear in southern Africa, specifically. Also, the “cradle of humankind” in Gauteng is a large source of hominin fossils (possibly for ...


2

Yes! Of course fear can be rational, especially when there is in fact a big scary monster and you are in danger. There is an unfortunate meme in society that emotions and rationality are incompatible, but that's not the case. Emotions can only be irrational if you are mistaken to feel those emotions in that context. Cases where fear is irrational include:...


2

You certainly did not understand it correctly, because the statement that the second case is either rational or not cannot be stated based only on the information you provided. The rationality of the second statement depends on the specific decision-maker's attitude to risk only. It is not possible to infer it based only on the information you are providing....


2

It seems that despite the idea's intuitive appeal, the evidence is currently mixed with respect to whether loss aversion can explain dollar cost averaging strategies. Most research I can find seems to be financial and normative, pertaining to whether the strategy performs well more than behavioral and descriptive concerns for why people engage in the ...


1

There are some arguments for the origins of religion based on the byproducts of our adaptive cognitive mechanisms and biases. A prominent one is the hyperactive agency detection device (HADD)--we are quick to infer the presence of intentional agency upon hearing a sudden unexplained noise or unnatural movement, especially in low perceptual quality situations ...


1

I like the theory put forward of madman strategy but I would say that if someone is co-operative with an irrational person, they are agreeing with parts of the irrational person's thinking. What you seem to be asking about to me is where a "rational" person goes with the irrational behaviour to prevent further irrational behaviour which to a degree would be ...


1

Indeed in the game of chicken appearing "insane" is actually a good strategy Pre-commitment One tactic in the game is for one party to signal their intentions convincingly before the game begins. For example, if one party were to ostentatiously disable their steering wheel just before the match, the other party would be compelled to swerve.[12] This ...


1

I studied the Child and Adolescent participation in decision-making questionnaire of L. O'Hare, O. Santin, K. Winter, C. McGuinness They found that children and young people's involvement in decision-making, when it went well, had a four stranded positive ‘therapeutic effect’ in that it led to better child/professional relationships, higher levels of self-...


1

After having thought more carefully about my own question, I give my own answer. I would say that in the quote: The literature shows: (1) knowing that one’s partner has defected leads to a higher probability of defection; (2) knowing that one’s partner has cooperated also leads to a higher probability of defection; and, most troubling for ...


1

In my opinion the question is not of-topic, because of two reasons: 1) Scientifically, it is hard to approve or not, but Sigmund Freud wrote about it in book: Totem and Taboo wrote that civilization start when human offsprings decided not to kill father and that strongest among them become new "leadeor of herd/doggery" It could explain debate cradle of ...


1

Why are you running away? 1) Are you running because of fear? 2) Are you running because the monster might harm you? 3) Are you running because you've had an encounter with a monster before and even though this one doesn't look like that one and that one had claws and this one doesn't but this one is still coming towards you, kinda fast? Fear is a marker,...


1

The question seems to ask for reviews; well, a Google Scholar search on... one-shot + game + review ...yields: Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System with Rational Voters (Alessina, 1988) Game-theoretic analysis of cooperation among supply chain agents: Review and extensions (Nagarajan & Sošić, 2008) Game theory and human ...


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