12

There are now many full-length books that focus on this deep, complex question about human nature/psychology and note newer/ongoing/active research in the area, some of it cited in them. Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Shermer and Gould Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud Park ...


7

There are a couple of defence mechanisms that may fit the bill. Keep in mind that these defence mechanisms typically involve an unconscious denial of the problem - ie, they apply to people who don't admit to the problem in themselves. Projection: ... a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against unpleasant impulses by denying their ...


5

I don't think there's an official term for this kind of bluffing specifically, that's widely used. But Nixon's approach to the Soviet Union, to act in an exaggerated irrational manner to deter them from provoking the US, is sometimes referred to as the "Madman Strategy".


5

I know that Helen Fisher, who is a love researcher, has developed a four factor personality model where two of the factors are quite relevant to your question. See (Fisher et al, 2015) for some general information regarding the personality model. The two factors that are relevant to your question are called (1) analytical/tough-minded, and (2) Prosocial/...


4

You might be looking at cases of psychological projection, which is a method of denial in which people defend themselves from their own negative impulses by attributing them to others. In accordance with the theory, it is less a problem of 'defending' others from getting anywhere near the problem, and more an act of projecting the problem onto others, or ...


4

Research: Rationalization is a defence mechanism - a Freudian (read: outdated) construct that is still in common use in clinical psychology, but no longer used much in research, so current studies about such mechanisms are hard to come by. To some degree, rationalization has been superseded by cognitive dissonance, and related self-perception theory. This ...


2

You certainly did not understand it correctly, because the statement that the second case is either rational or not cannot be stated based only on the information you provided. The rationality of the second statement depends on the specific decision-maker's attitude to risk only. It is not possible to infer it based only on the information you are providing....


2

It seems that despite the idea's intuitive appeal, the evidence is currently mixed with respect to whether loss aversion can explain dollar cost averaging strategies. Most research I can find seems to be financial and normative, pertaining to whether the strategy performs well more than behavioral and descriptive concerns for why people engage in the ...


1

The question seems to ask for reviews; well, a Google Scholar search on... one-shot + game + review ...yields: Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System with Rational Voters (Alessina, 1988) Game-theoretic analysis of cooperation among supply chain agents: Review and extensions (Nagarajan & Sošić, 2008) Game theory and human ...


1

I think what you are asking pertains to how learned helplessness is defined. If sticking to the traditional behavioral definition, then yes, 'learned helpless' is a response to an accumulation of stimulus-response events. See (Lerner, et al. 2018) However, if you depart from the traditional behavioral definition, you can incorporate the individuals role in ...


1

These are typically called cognitive distortions and are a mainstay of CBT, but are equally likely to be addressed by any cognitive psychotherapist. This is usually done by building skills to identify and challenge such thoughts. In the much older (and largely outdated) school of psychoanalysis, these are typically referred to as a defense mechanism called ...


1

There are some arguments for the origins of religion based on the byproducts of our adaptive cognitive mechanisms and biases. A prominent one is the hyperactive agency detection device (HADD)--we are quick to infer the presence of intentional agency upon hearing a sudden unexplained noise or unnatural movement, especially in low perceptual quality situations ...


1

Indeed in the game of chicken appearing "insane" is actually a good strategy Pre-commitment One tactic in the game is for one party to signal their intentions convincingly before the game begins. For example, if one party were to ostentatiously disable their steering wheel just before the match, the other party would be compelled to swerve.[12] This ...


1

I studied the Child and Adolescent participation in decision-making questionnaire of L. O'Hare, O. Santin, K. Winter, C. McGuinness They found that children and young people's involvement in decision-making, when it went well, had a four stranded positive ‘therapeutic effect’ in that it led to better child/professional relationships, higher levels of self-...


1

After having thought more carefully about my own question, I give my own answer. I would say that in the quote: The literature shows: (1) knowing that one’s partner has defected leads to a higher probability of defection; (2) knowing that one’s partner has cooperated also leads to a higher probability of defection; and, most troubling for ...


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