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10 votes
Accepted

Can the effectiveness of antidepressants be explained by a placebo effect?

Short answer Don't believe everything you read. Background The article cited (Kirsch, 2014) appears in a German journal with a mediocre impact factor. Not the most convincing platform. I'll cite ...
AliceD's user avatar
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8 votes

Do stimulants increase the IQ tests score for everyone?

IQ in ADHD sufferers indeed increases with the treatment of stimulants, such as methylphenidate (Meyes et al., 1994). This is thought to rely on the attention-narrowing effect of stimulants, i.e., ...
AliceD's user avatar
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8 votes
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Is it dangerous to take an antipsychotic drug irregularly?

Haldol (haloperidol) is mainly known for its antipsychotic properties to treat schizophrenia. It's an aged antipsychotic with a lot of side effects. Because of this, haloperidol is nowadays mostly ...
AliceD's user avatar
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7 votes
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Psilocybin for treatment of anxiety disorder

There has been some preliminary research in the 1960's. From "The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders" by Vollenweider and Kometer: ...
Seanny123's user avatar
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7 votes

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

The phenomenon you are referring to is called synesthesia, which can be defined as (Sinke et al., 2012): Synesthesia (Greek: syn = together; aesthesis = perception) is [...] a crossing of sensory ...
AliceD's user avatar
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7 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

"Depression" is a symptom or state of being, one that everyone can experience. "Major Depressive Disorder," however, is a diagnosable medical disorder for many reasons. The following list is by no ...
ancientcampus's user avatar
6 votes

Cannot find a journal paper on a study on caffeine, even though it is registered at clinicaltrials.gov

Short answer Haskall et al., The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood, Biol Psych (2008); 77: 113–22. Background Here's some of the detective work I've done: The ...
AliceD's user avatar
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6 votes
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How does the chemical structure of a drug determine potency?

In fact, the two binding affinities of fentanyl and morphine to the mu opiate receptors are considered to be fairly similar. The reason the former is the more potent one has more to due with its ...
AliceD's user avatar
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6 votes
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Why are there substances that give positive psychological effects but become unhealthy addictions?

Short answer The brain with its reward centers did not evolve with purified plant-based stimulants (nicotine, cocaine) or synthetic variants ((meth)amphetamine and other designer drugs) around. ...
AliceD's user avatar
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5 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

As @user30133 pointed out, Not everyone who feels depressed some time [is] diagnosed with depression. Depression is not simply feeling sad. It has specific diagnosis criteria which you can find in [...
Chris Rogers's user avatar
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5 votes

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

In a recent study, brain scans revealed that people under the influence of LSD experience images through information drawn from many parts of their brains, and not just the visual cortex at the back ...
John Slegers's user avatar
5 votes

Why does marijuana cause anxiety?

Cannabis can cause an acute and short-lasting episode of anxiety, which often resembles a state of panic. When taken in high doses these effects can be intense and turn into attacks of panic and ...
AliceD's user avatar
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5 votes

How addictive is Heroine?

"The United Nations World Drug Report 2013 estimated that approximately 16.5 million people worldwide aged 15 or older used heroin or opium. Of these users, approximately 23% are estimated to develop ...
steveLangsford's user avatar
4 votes

Why is Potassium(K) important to neurology & the brain?

The main cell of the brain is the neuron. The neuron has a semipermeable membrane that under specific circumstances lets potassium through. Another common cell is the glia cell, which only has ...
noumenal's user avatar
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4 votes

Is there a less colloquial term for the phenomenon known as "brain zaps"?

Short answer Brain zaps are a colloquial term for certain symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. Background 'Brain zaps' are associated with sudden shakes, or vibrations, tremors, ...
AliceD's user avatar
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4 votes
Accepted

What is the effectiveness of self-prescribed marijuana for depression?

Question 1: I am unaware of any studies directly addressing the epidemiology of self-medication with cannabis in cases of treatment-resistant depression (it seems like that is what you are asking ...
Abraham Nunes's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Can drugs cause a psychosis, or only unlock it?

Can drugs cause a psychosis or only unlock it Drugs can cause acute psychosis, but are not associated with a precipitation of a chronic psychotic state. Animal studies have shown that various drugs (...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
4 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

Short answer The current understanding is that depression is related to a neurochemical imbalance in the depressed brain. Pharmacological treatment to shift and correct that imbalance may therefore be ...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
4 votes

Do stimulants increase the IQ tests score for everyone?

Not about IQ as a whole alas, but I found a 2010 systematic review & meta-analysis "Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review", apparently the ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
4 votes

How to test whether THC or CBD gives a mental boost?

The only study I'm aware of is the following: Cannabis increased verbal fluency in low creatives to the same level as that of high creatives. Cannabis increased state psychosis-like symptoms in ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Cannot find a journal paper on a study on caffeine, even though it is registered at clinicaltrials.gov

See Caffeine at levels found in decaffeinated beverages is behaviourally active Appetite Volume 50, Issues 2–3, March–May 2008, Page 559. It's just a conference abstract though.
DavePhD's user avatar
  • 226
3 votes

How to counteract the deterioration of speech in stutterers by targeting sympathetic arousal?

The first line treatment for stuttering (I'm a stutterer myself) is speech therapy. Such therapies generally focus on helping stutterers to learn ways to minimize stuttering when they speak, such as ...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
3 votes

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic?

Short answer All neuropsychopharmaceuticals, including the tryptamines, are potentially neurotoxic depending on the dose at which they are ingested. Background Neurotoxicity is, arguaby, a ...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
3 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

Not everyone who feels depressed some time diagnosed with depression. Depression is not simply feeling sad. It has specific diagnosis criteria which you can find in DSM-V. Diagnosis of a mental ...
user30133's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Is tianeptine addictive?

The internet is flooded with anecdotal reports of 'Tian' relating to the drug's addictive potential after recreational use, for example here, here and here. Often, though, these reports come from ...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
3 votes

Are many anticonvulsants just coincidentally also psychoactive?

Note: I have epilepsy, and have been taking anticonvulsants for the best part of 2 decades. I've stumbled across this post after researching some things related to recent changes in side-effects, ...
Elias Van Ootegem's user avatar
3 votes

How addictive is Heroine?

Short answer Addicition is defined as: repeated involvement with a substance or activity, despite the substantial harm it now causes, because that involvement was (and may continue to be) pleasurable ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

How does caffeine work as an analgesic adjuvant?

Zhang (2001) reports that the analgesic activity of caffeine is due to a blockade of peripheral pro-nociceptive actions of adenosine; the activation of the central noradenosine, pain-suppressing ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes

How can we eliminate the effect of psychiatric medication on neuropsychological research with schizophrenic patients?

As far as I know, this effect cannot be eliminated by any practical means, other than stratifying the subjects into groups according to type of drug, dosage, duration of use etc. and use statistical ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes
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Predicting the individual effects of psychotropic drugs

Predicting individual side effects is generally not feasible in current clinical practice, although in the purview of "personalized medicine", mostly as a research goal/topic. For ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar

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