8 votes
Accepted

How much sleep is needed for peak cognitive performance?

How much sleep is needed for peak cognitive performance. If some were for >example wake up one morning at 12:30 pm would a sleeping pill help obtain >better sleep required for that performance the ...
  • 1,227
8 votes
Accepted

Is it dangerous to take an antipsychotic drug irregularly?

Haldol (haloperidol) is mainly known for its antipsychotic properties to treat schizophrenia. It's an aged antipsychotic with a lot of side effects. Because of this, haloperidol is nowadays mostly ...
  • 19.9k
7 votes
Accepted

Psilocybin for treatment of anxiety disorder

There has been some preliminary research in the 1960's. From "The neurobiology of psychedelic drugs: implications for the treatment of mood disorders" by Vollenweider and Kometer: ...
  • 8,783
7 votes
Accepted

Can hallucinogens treat depressive states?

Most of the 'true' hallucinogens are classified as 5HT2A agonists. 5HT2A is a postsynaptic serotonin receptor. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the other hand act by increasing ...
  • 19.9k
6 votes

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

The phenomenon you are referring to is called synesthesia, which can be defined as (Sinke et al., 2012): Synesthesia (Greek: syn = together; aesthesis = perception) is [...] a crossing of sensory ...
  • 19.9k
6 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

"Depression" is a symptom or state of being, one that everyone can experience. "Major Depressive Disorder," however, is a diagnosable medical disorder for many reasons. The following list is by no ...
6 votes

Cannot find a journal paper on a study on caffeine, even though it is registered at clinicaltrials.gov

Short answer Haskall et al., The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood, Biol Psych (2008); 77: 113–22. Background Here's some of the detective work I've done: The ...
  • 19.9k
6 votes
Accepted

How does the chemical structure of a drug determine potency?

In fact, the two binding affinities of fentanyl and morphine to the mu opiate receptors are considered to be fairly similar. The reason the former is the more potent one has more to due with its ...
  • 19.9k
5 votes

Can LSD connect sensory regions in the brain?

In a recent study, brain scans revealed that people under the influence of LSD experience images through information drawn from many parts of their brains, and not just the visual cortex at the back ...
5 votes

Can the neuronal firing rate be increased through medication/diet?

You've received a few great comments from our neuroscience-savvy users that indicate ways in which this question can be construed as particularly challenging or maybe even unanswerable. However, I ...
  • 9,284
5 votes

Why does marijuana cause anxiety?

Cannabis can cause an acute and short-lasting episode of anxiety, which often resembles a state of panic. When taken in high doses these effects can be intense and turn into attacks of panic and ...
  • 19.9k
5 votes

Would administering oxytocin in games of deception improve performance?

One of the very recently published studies linked to in the question, on the relationship between exogenous oxytocin administration and ability to accurately detect deception, instructed participants ...
5 votes

How addictive is Heroine?

"The United Nations World Drug Report 2013 estimated that approximately 16.5 million people worldwide aged 15 or older used heroin or opium. Of these users, approximately 23% are estimated to develop ...
4 votes
Accepted

What is the effectiveness of self-prescribed marijuana for depression?

Question 1: I am unaware of any studies directly addressing the epidemiology of self-medication with cannabis in cases of treatment-resistant depression (it seems like that is what you are asking ...
4 votes

Are there any circumstances where schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are not lifelong?

The current understanding, I believe, is that symptomatic psychiatric disorders may or may not be lifelong according to many factors, but that the susceptibility to them probably is lifelong. Some ...
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4 votes

What is the Mechanism of 5-HT2A-mediated psychedelia?

Broadband cortical desynchronization "begins at the cellular level with excitation of layer 5 pyramidal neurons, and extends to the macroscopic level with cortical desynchronization and decreased ...
4 votes

How do SSRIs work?

When serotonin (5HT) uptake is inhibited, 5HT diffuses away from the synaptic cleft. It is believed that eventually 5HT disperses in the extracellular space and reaches the dendritic regions. The ...
  • 19.9k
4 votes

Is there a less colloquial term for the phenomenon known as "brain zaps"?

Short answer Brain zaps are a colloquial term for certain symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. Background 'Brain zaps' are associated with sudden shakes, or vibrations, tremors, ...
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4 votes

Why is Potassium(K) important to neurology & the brain?

The main cell of the brain is the neuron. The neuron has a semipermeable membrane that under specific circumstances lets potassium through. Another common cell is the glia cell, which only has ...
  • 628
4 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

As @user30133 pointed out, Not everyone who feels depressed some time [is] diagnosed with depression. Depression is not simply feeling sad. It has specific diagnosis criteria which you can find in [...
  • 11.3k
4 votes
Accepted

Can drugs cause a psychosis, or only unlock it?

Can drugs cause a psychosis or only unlock it Drugs can cause acute psychosis, but are not associated with a precipitation of a chronic psychotic state. Animal studies have shown that various drugs (...
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4 votes

Do stimulants increase the IQ tests score for everyone?

IQ in ADHD sufferers indeed increases with the treatment of stimulants, such as methylphenidate (Meyes et al., 1994). This is thought to rely on the attention-narrowing effect of stimulants, i.e., ...
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4 votes

How to test whether THC or CBD gives a mental boost?

The only study I'm aware of is the following: Cannabis increased verbal fluency in low creatives to the same level as that of high creatives. Cannabis increased state psychosis-like symptoms in ...
4 votes
Accepted

Cannot find a journal paper on a study on caffeine, even though it is registered at clinicaltrials.gov

See Caffeine at levels found in decaffeinated beverages is behaviourally active Appetite Volume 50, Issues 2–3, March–May 2008, Page 559. It's just a conference abstract though.
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3 votes

LSD and tryptamines harmless or neurotoxic?

Short answer All neuropsychopharmaceuticals, including the tryptamines, are potentially neurotoxic depending on the dose at which they are ingested. Background Neurotoxicity is, arguaby, a ...
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3 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

Short answer The current understanding is that depression is related to a neurochemical imbalance in the depressed brain. Pharmacological treatment to shift and correct that imbalance may therefore be ...
  • 19.9k
3 votes

Why is depression a diagnosable issue?

Not everyone who feels depressed some time diagnosed with depression. Depression is not simply feeling sad. It has specific diagnosis criteria which you can find in DSM-V. Diagnosis of a mental ...
3 votes
Accepted

Are there any circumstances where schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are not lifelong?

According to this systemic review (:the most objective kind of evidence come from reviews of studies not primary sources:) 1 in 7 schizophrenia patients met criteria for recovery. Source: http://www....
3 votes

Are there any circumstances where schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are not lifelong?

Schizophrenia has no cure, which means you cannot "force" it to stop. However, not every case is lifelong by nature. Information on schizophrenia prognosis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
  • 3,749
3 votes
Accepted

Is tianeptine addictive?

The internet is flooded with anecdotal reports of 'Tian' relating to the drug's addictive potential after recreational use, for example here, here and here. Often, though, these reports come from ...
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Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible