8

Actually, standard IQ tests, such as Raven's matrices, tend to assess intelligence better if they are not timed. In this paper by Philip Vernon (1988) it was found that the g-factor extracted slightly more variance for the same test if the test was not timed than if it had a time limit. This means if you ask yourself: "What is this test measuring?", you can ...


7

Probably both a combination of being more tired and fewer distractions. Most other people will be asleep during the night. Programming is adversely affected by context-switching, thus night-time with stimulant-enhanced soda is more likely to provide you with long periods of interruption free coding. Update: The above situation creates the conditions where ...


7

I just quickly looked this up on Google Scholar and found the following interesting reference : JN Macgregor, T Ormerod. "Human performance on the traveling salesman problem." Perception & Psychophysics Volume 58, Issue 4, pp 527-539 (June 1996) This paper claims that "complexity of TSPs is a function of number of nonboundary points, not total number ...


7

There are a couple of defence mechanisms that may fit the bill. Keep in mind that these defence mechanisms typically involve an unconscious denial of the problem - ie, they apply to people who don't admit to the problem in themselves. Projection: ... a theory in psychology in which humans defend themselves against unpleasant impulses by denying their ...


6

I think it is often a myth that people work better under pressure. Most people who say they work better under pressure have not really tried working under normal conditions. Even if a person thinks he works better under pressure, he may work better under normal conditions. That being said, pressure (more specifically time pressure) helps in providing closure ...


5

I'm taking your question to be equivalent to "how does the human brain differ from a computer?". Indeed, it's well-established that humans outperform computers in a large number of contexts, but it's difficult to pinpoint exactly why this is. The best answer you'll get is one that outlines how the two computational systems differ. Let me start ...


4

Critical thinking is an ill-defined concept in the cognitive sciences, so this question most likely has as many answers as there are measures of IQ and critical thinking. An accessible introduction to the literature is available here, with the general cognitive conception of critical thinking given as follows: ... the mental activities that are typically ...


4

You might be looking at cases of psychological projection, which is a method of denial in which people defend themselves from their own negative impulses by attributing them to others. In accordance with the theory, it is less a problem of 'defending' others from getting anywhere near the problem, and more an act of projecting the problem onto others, or ...


3

MariaAnt provided a relevant definition of complex problem solving in the answer to the question, "Research operationalizing so-called strategic thinking?" based on Frensch and Funke (1995). [Complex problem solving] occurs to overcome barriers between a given state and a desired goal state by means of behavioral and/or cognitive, multistep ...


3

Is there a psychological condition which promotes literal and overly complicated thinking? Yes, I think so... Its called intelligence. Is this a known condition? You want a literal answer? Then "Yes" What, neurologically, may cause this in the brain? Something amiss in the corpus callosum Are there ways to improve this? If you can teach an ...


3

Almost every area of your brain would be involved in learning and understanding such high-level topics, so any perceived inability to learn a specific topic is very unlikely to be due to a particular area of your brain not working optimally. Learning new things can take a lot of time and practice. A lot of times people don't see as much improvement as they ...


3

According the the Yerkes–Dodson law, a moderate level of arousal gives energy to the task, improving performance. The Yerkes–Dodson law is an empirical relationship between arousal and performance, originally developed by psychologists Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson in 1908. The law dictates that performance increases with physiological ...


3

Quick answer: A brief Google search show cases where this occurred. For example, it seems that a study on medical students showed a significant relationship between confidence and ability after training, although not before training (Clanton et al., 2014). This being said, the Dunning-Kruger effect always comes to mind when such questions come up… ...


3

I think what you are reffering to is known as self-efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. ... A strong sense of ...


3

The "overheat" (flushing of the skin) you experience is a common-enough reaction to stress, part of the fight-or-flight response. It's not uncommon for people to experince it during exams; generally exam/test axniety is related to both internal and external factors (or perception thereof) Self-esteem was a significant and strong predictor of test anxiety. ...


2

There are no known domain-general ways of formulating good questions and problems—what constitutes a good question or problem formulation depends on the field or domain. A good psychology question is different from a good literary question, which in turn is different from a good business question. Because there are no known domain-independent ways of ...


2

This ted talk video would probably interest you. It seems the current understanding is that it would depend on both the individual, and the type of task they are performing. Here are the general tendencies I've seen/been taught. For physical tasks or tasks where the important factor is strength and effort, time constraints and rewards tend to increase the ...


2

Dual Task research In general, I think a lot depends on what is the secondary task and how it relates to the primary task (see human multitasking). In general, secondary tasks tend to lower performance on the primary task. A classic combinations where there may be facilitation is music with gross motor tasks, where the music is often experienced as ...


2

I answered a similar question some time ago on Programmers SE: Are developers more productive at night? One interesting paper I ran into with a different perspective than the one provided in Justas's answer is "The Programmer Life-Cycle" by Russell Ovans (2004). It discusses the productivity of a programmer over time. The sequence of phases is: euphoric, ...


2

A bit of a broad question as a full answer will really depend on the specifics of the problem being addressed. In short though, yes, cultural factors, and probably to some extent linguistic factors as well, do impact on problem solving processes. One of the main cross-cultural factors that can alter problem solving is the whole individualism/collectivism ...


2

Yes, anti-correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic brain networks may be altered by different practice. I give an example of how meditation affects anti-correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic brain networks. "Human experiences can be broadly divided into those that are external and related to interaction with the environment, and experiences ...


2

You may find some explanation from the research done for attention. In the most famous experiment done by Simon and Chabris 1999 (see video), participants inhibited irrelevant information that was not related to the task of counting passes. When you are performing a task, you pay attention to what is relevant to the task, and inhibit irrelevant internal and ...


2

What you are describing is called mental set. The following extract is from this excelent article. A mental set is a tendency to only see solutions that have worked in the past. This type of fixed thinking can make it difficult to come up with solutions and can impede the problem-solving process. For example, imagine that you are trying to solve ...


2

I can think two reasons why talking about a problem helps : Explaining your knowledge can reveal gaps and bugs The following extract is from the book Smart Thinking by Art Markman : Talking about a problem changes its mental representation Our mental representation is the ideas, concepts, stories, theories, and skills that make up how we internalize ...


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