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Neuroendocrine systems can be defined as the sets of neurons, glands and non-endocrine tissues, and the neurochemicals, hormones, and humoral signals they produce and receive, that function in an integrated manner to collectively regulate a physiological or behavioral state. The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism by which the hypothalamus maintains ...


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The original author is not making a claim one way or another for logical AND or logical OR within this context. The statement the pre-supplementary motor area (preSMA), which in turn receives inputs from the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex is referring only to inputs to the preSMA; it is not making any strong statements about which inputs are ...


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