# Tag Info

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Facial shape Aggression relates to facial width-to-height ratio (Carré, McCormick, & Mondloch, 2009; Carré & McCormick, 2008). The width-to-height ratio is the distance between the left and right zygion (the outside of the cheek bone) divided by the distance between the top of the upper lip and the mid-brow. Here's a useful image displaying the ...

12

Sorry for the delay getting to an answer - the holidays have been super busy for me this year. If you feel up to it, definitely check out the link @ChuckSherrington posted in the comments. That has more information than you'll need for a while. Getting down to business: The answer to your question is both! Since your question assumes that both are ...

12

Maybe we should ask a vietnam vet if he feels less stress in nature than inside a building. I think the reason we feel tense inside is because we've been conditioned to expect stressful situations to happen while inside, so we're on guard for it (ie tense). Nothing bad has ever happened to us while sitting on a park bench listening to the birds chirp. Now,...

10

I was shocked at how difficult it was to find systematic scientific research on the psychology of flatulence. The main empirical paper appears to be one by Lippman (1980). It seems to be hard to get a copy of the original. However, the author of the Neurotic Physiology blog discusses the paper at length. Lippman study Lippman asked participants to rank ...

9

Inheritability of facial features Let's start with the origin of specific facial features. Below is a table which shows averaged heritabilities for a range of facial quantitative traits from a large number of studies, from the review by Kohn (1991): where $h^2$ is the narrow-sense heritability. You can clearly see that heritability in the majority of the ...

9

This is a trickier multi-part question to adjudicate than you might think. Is Sex A "Need" (Physiological or Otherwise)? Definitions of "Needs", "Motives", etc., are dime-a-dozen. Though I don't necessarily agree with all the ingredients, I like how well explicated the criteria by Baumeister and Leary (1995) are, according to whom a fundamental need should:...

8

Electrodermal activity is an index of sympathetic activation and a skin conductance response can occur in many situations. It is therefore a very general response and can arise as a result of stimulus novelty or “significance” (whether you want to call this an affective response is up to you but it seems very different from common sense notions of what an ...

8

I assume you're referring to the experiment by Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) in which people rated a cartoon as funnier when they had to hold their face in a smile shape by gripping a pencil in their teeth. This has been applied to negative affect by Larsen, Kasimatis, and Frey (1992) who had participants furrow their brows during an activity. Golf ...

7

Warmer temperature are shown to raise aggression level (Anderson, et al, 1995). Citing this study, DeWall, 2009 found a similar correlation between words associated with high temperatures and hostile behavior. This could be perceived as a threat to clear thinking. Moss, 1996 shows oxygen administration increases memory. However, intermittent hypoxia on ...

7

In this article, the authors note that natural sounds promote faster stress recovery than artificial sounds. One of the main reasons is because the natural sounds are more familiar than the artificial sounds. According to Eleanor Ratcliffe, natural sounds (such as bird song) may evoke memories of different seasons. This in turn, produces positive affect. ...

7

The article Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review seems to answer your question. You will find in Table 2 the average electrodermal effect (unweighted) found in 134 studies for different emotions. I see in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) row that all the 11 emotions under study produced an increase in activation from baseline, except ...

7

Yup; basically, it works. Varvogli and Darviri (2011) review research on diaphragmatic breathing, reporting: Deep breathing has been successfully used to decrease the fatigue associated with haemopoietic stem cell transplantation patients 55, to reduce the anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with asthma 56, in the management of acute stressful ...

6

I recently completed a study involving physical ergonomics of rifles. We monitored heart rate and respiration using the Zephyr BioHarness. It seemed to work pretty well. It also monitors movement of the user, if that is of interest to you. To get data out, it is possible to compile a report and export it to CSV, which works well if you need to do ...

6

Certain emotions/situations trigger parts of body's self defense mechanism which in turn make the brain release certain chemical compounds. These chemical compounds in turn prepares your body to respond to the situation at hand. For example in case of life threatening situation one experiences an adrenaline rush which prepares the body by quickening the ...

6

As far as I know, it has not been shown that a positive attitude has any effect on the immune system (ignoring the less significant placebo effect). What has been shown is that long-term stress has a negative effect on the immune system. Short-term stress actually has a positive effect on the immune system, but long-term stress has been correlated with ...

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The article by Ranganathan et al (2004) provides some relevant information. The authors discuss how it can be increased by two main factors, neural adaptation and muscle growth. They note how the motor skill acquisition literature supports the use of visualisation as an adjunct to actual practice as a means of improving performance: Research on motor ...

5

Short answer Muscles are controlled by motor neurons in the spinal cord. The number of motor neurons that fire, as well as their individual firing rates govern the control of muscle force. Background Muscles consist of contractile elements: the muscle fibers. These muscle fibers are under direct control of the motor neurons in the spinal cord (Purves et al.,...

5

Paul Ekman has shown definite links between emotions and facial expressions. A Google Scholar search for his name returns many many results. Now, consider how muscles are physically formed; that is, the more we use muscles, the better defined (and usually either stronger or more effective) they become. Alternatively put, form follows function. Put the ...

5

It seems that there is a research literature on the topic of the relationship between body temperature and time perception. Weardon and Penon-Voak (1995) present a literature review of the topic which would be worth reading if this interests you. The following quotes their abstract: Experiments investigating timing behaviour in humans under conditions ...

4

I imagine individual differences in enjoyment derived from horror films would be multifaceted as with most preferences regarding consumption of different media. Some of the research mentions how males, teenagers/young adults, sensation seekers, and those who have a history of exposure to horror films (although this may be both cause and effect) tend to like ...

4

In general, I don't think the answers to these questions are known. This paper is a good review of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS); the section on neurophysiological mechanisms is largely speculation based on how slow-wave sleep is generally thought to function--despite its lack of answers, that section is good reading anyhow, since it covers current ...

4

One study (Zhao et. al., 2010), investigating the sleep architecture of two bat species (one nocturnal, and one mixed), notes the following: C. sphinx was found to sleep predominantly throughout the day (60% of total sleep quota) during which time it spent significantly longer time in NREM and REM sleep. Compared to E. spelaea, C. sphinx had ...

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Part of the issue is maintaining blood-glucose concentration, which one doesn't always sense is crashing until it's already low and still crashing. As @BennySkogberg's answer implies, disruptions in the energy supply threaten cognitive function. This implies a loss of functional capacity and efficiency (which, when lacking, increase the probability of ...

4

There is no evidence that the CSF has a pump, especially not a spinal pump as suggested by Dr. Jockers in the previous (now deleted) answer. Dr. Jockers calls himself a "Maximized Living Doctor" but does not list his credentials. It is likely that he is a Doctor of Chiropractic; his references for the CSF pump article are dead ends: One is a dead link, two ...

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