14

Facial shape Aggression relates to facial width-to-height ratio (Carré, McCormick, & Mondloch, 2009; Carré & McCormick, 2008). The width-to-height ratio is the distance between the left and right zygion (the outside of the cheek bone) divided by the distance between the top of the upper lip and the mid-brow. Here's a useful image displaying the ...


12

Sorry for the delay getting to an answer - the holidays have been super busy for me this year. If you feel up to it, definitely check out the link @ChuckSherrington posted in the comments. That has more information than you'll need for a while. Getting down to business: The answer to your question is both! Since your question assumes that both are ...


12

Maybe we should ask a vietnam vet if he feels less stress in nature than inside a building. I think the reason we feel tense inside is because we've been conditioned to expect stressful situations to happen while inside, so we're on guard for it (ie tense). Nothing bad has ever happened to us while sitting on a park bench listening to the birds chirp. Now,...


9

This is a trickier multi-part question to adjudicate than you might think. Is Sex A "Need" (Physiological or Otherwise)? Definitions of "Needs", "Motives", etc., are dime-a-dozen. Though I don't necessarily agree with all the ingredients, I like how well explicated the criteria by Baumeister and Leary (1995) are, according to whom a fundamental need should:...


8

Electrodermal activity is an index of sympathetic activation and a skin conductance response can occur in many situations. It is therefore a very general response and can arise as a result of stimulus novelty or “significance” (whether you want to call this an affective response is up to you but it seems very different from common sense notions of what an ...


8

I assume you're referring to the experiment by Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) in which people rated a cartoon as funnier when they had to hold their face in a smile shape by gripping a pencil in their teeth. This has been applied to negative affect by Larsen, Kasimatis, and Frey (1992) who had participants furrow their brows during an activity. Golf ...


7

Yup; basically, it works. Varvogli and Darviri (2011) review research on diaphragmatic breathing, reporting: Deep breathing has been successfully used to decrease the fatigue associated with haemopoietic stem cell transplantation patients 55, to reduce the anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with asthma 56, in the management of acute stressful ...


7

The article Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review seems to answer your question. You will find in Table 2 the average electrodermal effect (unweighted) found in 134 studies for different emotions. I see in the Skin Conductance Response (SCR) row that all the 11 emotions under study produced an increase in activation from baseline, except ...


7

In this article, the authors note that natural sounds promote faster stress recovery than artificial sounds. One of the main reasons is because the natural sounds are more familiar than the artificial sounds. According to Eleanor Ratcliffe, natural sounds (such as bird song) may evoke memories of different seasons. This in turn, produces positive affect. ...


6

I recently completed a study involving physical ergonomics of rifles. We monitored heart rate and respiration using the Zephyr BioHarness. It seemed to work pretty well. It also monitors movement of the user, if that is of interest to you. To get data out, it is possible to compile a report and export it to CSV, which works well if you need to do ...


6

The article by Ranganathan et al (2004) provides some relevant information. The authors discuss how it can be increased by two main factors, neural adaptation and muscle growth. They note how the motor skill acquisition literature supports the use of visualisation as an adjunct to actual practice as a means of improving performance: Research on motor ...


5

Short answer Muscles are controlled by motor neurons in the spinal cord. The number of motor neurons that fire, as well as their individual firing rates govern the control of muscle force. Background Muscles consist of contractile elements: the muscle fibers. These muscle fibers are under direct control of the motor neurons in the spinal cord (Purves et al.,...


4

Part of the issue is maintaining blood-glucose concentration, which one doesn't always sense is crashing until it's already low and still crashing. As @BennySkogberg's answer implies, disruptions in the energy supply threaten cognitive function. This implies a loss of functional capacity and efficiency (which, when lacking, increase the probability of ...


4

In general, I don't think the answers to these questions are known. This paper is a good review of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS); the section on neurophysiological mechanisms is largely speculation based on how slow-wave sleep is generally thought to function--despite its lack of answers, that section is good reading anyhow, since it covers current ...


4

One study (Zhao et. al., 2010), investigating the sleep architecture of two bat species (one nocturnal, and one mixed), notes the following: C. sphinx was found to sleep predominantly throughout the day (60% of total sleep quota) during which time it spent significantly longer time in NREM and REM sleep. Compared to E. spelaea, C. sphinx had ...


4

There is no evidence that the CSF has a pump, especially not a spinal pump as suggested by Dr. Jockers in the previous (now deleted) answer. Dr. Jockers calls himself a "Maximized Living Doctor" but does not list his credentials. It is likely that he is a Doctor of Chiropractic; his references for the CSF pump article are dead ends: One is a dead link, two ...


4

Reading people's faces to determine their character is called physiognomy. Some might downplay the idea that it is real but scientists are nowadays starting to accept that there may be a correlation between the shape of the face and characteristics. In fact, a recent study showed that men with a wide face tend to feel more powerful. The scientists from ...


4

The 5F response (fright/flight/fight/freeze/fawn response) to threats is responsible for both situations. Specifically, among other reactions, the 5F response causes the following: [emphasis mine] Catecholamine hormones, such as adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine), facilitate immediate physical reactions associated with a ...


3

There is quite a lot of research on self-awakening (see this search on Google Scholar for self awakening). Hopefully someone else more familiar with this literature can add a more authoritative answer about the mechanisms of self-awakening. In the interem I briefly extract some relevant points from Ikeda and Hashi (2012). The study does not directly address ...


3

Slow EEG waves reflect a slow oscillation in cortical neurons, between a depolarized state (UP-State) and hyper polarized state (DOWN-state; Steriade et al., 1993a, 1993b). During the down-state, neurons are disfacilitated (they can't really be activated by external stimuli or depolarized; Contreras et al., 1996). As the brain progress into deep sleep (lots ...


3

It's probably more accurate to say that it's more difficult to fall asleep in the light because the circadian rhythm is directly regulated by ambient light. Our retinas contain a small amount of cells specialized for detecting ambient light levels, and these are directly connected to the brain center which controls the circadian rhythm. As our eyelids don't ...


3

As it has been pointed in the other answers and the comments, the heart is indeed only an organ that pumps blood and all the processes responsible for emotions are carried out by the brain. However, the heart and generally the autonomous nervous system is of critical importance to somatic theories of emotion. These theories propose that bodily responses in ...


3

Not quite the same, although there is some overlap. What's colloquially known as an "adrenaline rush" (e.g. what you'd experience in a roller coaster or more generally in a fight-or-flight situation) is the result of the body's fast reaction system to stress, sometimes called the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. SAM activation causes the adrenal ...


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