14

Facial shape Aggression relates to facial width-to-height ratio (Carré, McCormick, & Mondloch, 2009; Carré & McCormick, 2008). The width-to-height ratio is the distance between the left and right zygion (the outside of the cheek bone) divided by the distance between the top of the upper lip and the mid-brow. Here's a useful image displaying the ...


12

Maybe we should ask a vietnam vet if he feels less stress in nature than inside a building. I think the reason we feel tense inside is because we've been conditioned to expect stressful situations to happen while inside, so we're on guard for it (ie tense). Nothing bad has ever happened to us while sitting on a park bench listening to the birds chirp. Now,...


9

This is a trickier multi-part question to adjudicate than you might think. Is Sex A "Need" (Physiological or Otherwise)? Definitions of "Needs", "Motives", etc., are dime-a-dozen. Though I don't necessarily agree with all the ingredients, I like how well explicated the criteria by Baumeister and Leary (1995) are, according to whom a fundamental need should:...


8

I assume you're referring to the experiment by Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) in which people rated a cartoon as funnier when they had to hold their face in a smile shape by gripping a pencil in their teeth. This has been applied to negative affect by Larsen, Kasimatis, and Frey (1992) who had participants furrow their brows during an activity. Golf ...


7

In this article, the authors note that natural sounds promote faster stress recovery than artificial sounds. One of the main reasons is because the natural sounds are more familiar than the artificial sounds. According to Eleanor Ratcliffe, natural sounds (such as bird song) may evoke memories of different seasons. This in turn, produces positive affect. ...


7

Yup; basically, it works. Varvogli and Darviri (2011) review research on diaphragmatic breathing, reporting: Deep breathing has been successfully used to decrease the fatigue associated with haemopoietic stem cell transplantation patients 55, to reduce the anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with asthma 56, in the management of acute stressful ...


5

There is no evidence that the CSF has a pump. A link to a Chiropract Medicine page (a good one, from my reading) tells us that: It is something of a misnomer to speak of CSF “circulation,” particularly in the spinal canal, as there is no continuous loop circulation of CSF as in the cardiovascular system. [CEREBROSPINAL FLUID STASIS AND ITS CLINICAL ...


5

Short answer Muscles are controlled by motor neurons in the spinal cord. The number of motor neurons that fire, as well as their individual firing rates govern the control of muscle force. Background Muscles consist of contractile elements: the muscle fibers. These muscle fibers are under direct control of the motor neurons in the spinal cord (Purves et al.,...


4

In general, I don't think the answers to these questions are known. This paper is a good review of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS); the section on neurophysiological mechanisms is largely speculation based on how slow-wave sleep is generally thought to function--despite its lack of answers, that section is good reading anyhow, since it covers current ...


4

One study (Zhao et. al., 2010), investigating the sleep architecture of two bat species (one nocturnal, and one mixed), notes the following: C. sphinx was found to sleep predominantly throughout the day (60% of total sleep quota) during which time it spent significantly longer time in NREM and REM sleep. Compared to E. spelaea, C. sphinx had ...


4

Part of the issue is maintaining blood-glucose concentration, which one doesn't always sense is crashing until it's already low and still crashing. As @BennySkogberg's answer implies, disruptions in the energy supply threaten cognitive function. This implies a loss of functional capacity and efficiency (which, when lacking, increase the probability of ...


4

Reading people's faces to determine their character is called physiognomy. Some might downplay the idea that it is real but scientists are nowadays starting to accept that there may be a correlation between the shape of the face and characteristics. In fact, a recent study showed that men with a wide face tend to feel more powerful. The scientists from ...


3

The 5F response (fright/flight/fight/freeze/fawn response) to threats is responsible for both situations. Specifically, among other reactions, the 5F response causes the following: [emphasis mine] Catecholamine hormones, such as adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine), facilitate immediate physical reactions associated with a ...


3

Not quite the same, although there is some overlap. What's colloquially known as an "adrenaline rush" (e.g. what you'd experience in a roller coaster or more generally in a fight-or-flight situation) is the result of the body's fast reaction system to stress, sometimes called the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. SAM activation causes the adrenal ...


3

As it has been pointed in the other answers and the comments, the heart is indeed only an organ that pumps blood and all the processes responsible for emotions are carried out by the brain. However, the heart and generally the autonomous nervous system is of critical importance to somatic theories of emotion. These theories propose that bodily responses in ...


3

It's probably more accurate to say that it's more difficult to fall asleep in the light because the circadian rhythm is directly regulated by ambient light. Our retinas contain a small amount of cells specialized for detecting ambient light levels, and these are directly connected to the brain center which controls the circadian rhythm. As our eyelids don't ...


3

Slow EEG waves reflect a slow oscillation in cortical neurons, between a depolarized state (UP-State) and hyper polarized state (DOWN-state; Steriade et al., 1993a, 1993b). During the down-state, neurons are disfacilitated (they can't really be activated by external stimuli or depolarized; Contreras et al., 1996). As the brain progress into deep sleep (lots ...


3

https://crcns.org has several openly available datasets with recordings from many different brain areas. Each recording will likely have multiple simultaneously recorded neurons.


3

Physiology is a very broad term that includes neuroscience: Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. Within the cognitive sciences, physiology typically refers to non-behavioral inputs and outputs of the nervous system (including parts of the brain), but physiological measures may include ...


3

An inherent problem with the line of investigation is that the exhibited behaviours are inconsistent with the claimed emotions. In no other situation do the emotions of love, peace, ecstasy and euphoria result in the performance of behaviours such as glossolalia, collapsing, fainting, trembling, jerking, convulsing, contorting and shaking. More likely ...


2

The following comes from my research experience using fMRI to study the human visual system. Overall, peoples brains are similar to each other on higher scales, and become very different from each other as the scale becomes smaller. Differences between different people start with brain size and sulci patterns. Also male and female brain anatomies will be ...


2

This reminds me of something one of my psychology professors said to me: "the body needs rest, but the brain needs sleep" (it's a common enough saying, but that's where I heard it). And this is pretty well borne out by extensive research in a variety of fields. First, is sleep a habit or addiction that can be kicked? Well, people have managed this, actually....


2

There are numerous of commercials exploring this fact, and I can only listen to my eight-year-old daughter when she gets cranky from not eating her breakfast. If you don't eat or you eat wrong kind of food, your emotions will suffer. Malnutrition and the Brain Another way not eating can affect the brain is through malnutrition. The cells of your brain rely ...


2

Based on all the energy spent on courting and mating, both in the human and animal world, I would say yes. There is also the argument that "survival" of humans as a species depends on sex (reproduction), which would make it a physiological need. Of course there is a gray line as sex also fulfils the need for love and affection, which is not at the ...


2

Short answer The stress response included norepinephrine release, in turn increasing blood pressure. This may cause muscle tension. Background What an interesting question. To my surprise, I couldn't find convincing causal explanations, linking emotional stress and muscle tension. In one study, study participants were exposed to emotional stress. The ...


2

Tempo should be an objective parameter in music. The same piece is heard differently at higher tempo than in lower tempo. This is sensible if you accept an Aristotelian perspective of music, whereby music is an attempt to represent something real (could be a person's emotions or natural sounds). The key in your question seems to be "not experienced enough". ...


2

Presumably you to mean to ask what pathway mediates muscle tension. muscle tension is controlled by the reticular formation (in the brain stem), so it doesn't require anything special to happen in the bloodstream. The reticular formation is connected to many other areas of the brain. To save this question from triviality and relate it to your prior one (...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible