6

Short answer: It might be genetic. Human sexual behaviour, especially where stigma and taboos are involved, is notoriously difficult to study, so the real answer is that we just don't know. However, some evidence suggests that genetic factors may be at play: A 2008 study compared 112 male-to-female transsexuals ... with 258 cisgender male controls. ...


5

Exactly like you, I would like to begin by saying that I have no animosity nor prejudice against anyone. What I am saying below is not meant to be offensive to anyone, it is just an honest account of what the data in my region says. You wrote: "I can only think of 2 possible solutions ... either a difference in psychological predisposition between the ...


4

We had a discussion of the pros and cons of the HEXACO model in a recent article that draws on arguments and evidence presented by the "heavyweights" of the Big 5 (Anglim, & O'Connor, 2019). Here is the quote of the paragraph that focusses specifically on the critiques: Although the HEXACO model is receiving growing support, the necessity of a ...


4

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a complicated diagnosis to understand and treat. A painful mix of emotional trouble, unstable relationships and self-destructive behavior, including suicide attempts are associated with BPD. Experts have given a new name to BPD as Biosocial disorder. People who develop BPD are highly emotional, sensitive and reactive,...


3

The lists of "character deficits" can be mixtures of judgements, beliefs, attitudes and emotions. The common denominator of the things on such lists is often just that they are not acceptable for some people, but they are not all necessary bad and some of them may not need to be changed or treated. Examples: Laziness can be a temporary mood, which, if ...


3

Actually, McCrae does give his take on HEXACO in the aforementioned book chapter. I missed it initially because it was tucked in a paragraph that opened with a discussion of a lexical 3-factor model. Ashton and colleagues (Ashton and Lee 2005; Ashton, Lee, Perugini et al. 2004) reported lexical studies in a number of languages in which six replicable ...


3

One 2017 paper does try to correlate the dark tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism) to extremist political views: Previous research on personality and political attitudes has been conducted in countries where political parties from the center dominate the political system. In the present research (N = 675), we focus on ...


2

This question is a bit broad. The main reason it can be easily answered is that the answer is mostly no. According to a 2016 recent review: for cluster A personality disorders, which among other things feature low empathy and social aversion there's not a lot going on regarding pharmacotherapy: Patients with schizotypal personality disorder have been ...


2

Jung outlines this pretty clearly in both Aion and Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious. I strongly recommend those books to anyone attempting to gain a deeper understanding of these concepts in particular. I found the first few chapters of Aion to be particularly enlightening. There are many anthropomorphic symbols representing archetypes in the human ...


2

Actually some if not all of your question can be answered fairly succinctly by quoting from a fairly recent meta analysis cited in the Wikipedia page on the topic: The longitudinal stability of personality is low in childhood but increases substantially into adulthood. Theoretical explanations for this trend differ in the emphasis placed on intrinsic ...


2

I had a look on scopus and there were no hits for "High conflict people". So I imagine you'd want to turn to other literature; a few thoughts: Dark Triad Agreeableness from the Big 5 Conflict styles literature Personality disorders literture Literature on aggression


2

I suppose this needs a more in-depth answer, but a quick search found one twin study (Bartels et al. 2012), which not only correlated IQ with Big5, but also tried to determine how much of that has a shared genetic basis: Significant positive phenotypic correlations with IQ were seen for agreeableness (r = 0.21) and openness to experience (r = 0.32). A ...


2

It is hard to argue that anxiety makes you more "selfish". Your definition of "extreme periods anxiety" is rather vague and hard to operationalize, same goes for selfishness in this context. The article you cited is not based on scientific literature but much rather a personal look on anxiety and selfishness. Therefore it is in no way conclusive evidence. ...


2

This broad article introduces theories of what unconscious thought is and how it relates to conscious thoughts: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconscious_thought_theory . I recommend it. 1) All thinking is preceded by or relies on unconscious processes. Consciousness gives a narrow view of all cognition in the same sort of way that our eyes only see a ...


2

It's very common in research to only measure a subset of the Big Five. When I recently reviewed the literature on the Big Five and well-being, there were a huge number of papers that only used a subset of the Big Five. And I'd say that the most common variables to be measured in isolation were neuroticism followed by extraversion. More generally, if I were ...


1

Seems like StrengthFinder and CliftonStrengths are owned by Gallup organisation and there is commercial registration of the tests? The same way as psychometric testing can be commercialised and protected by intellectual property law, it seems that Gallup has done the same with those tests. As the result, research and testing into those instruments are very ...


1

I mentioned in the comment that it could be just a memory test, but now, with knowing a bit more of the context (it was an interview to join a bank), it could be a test about how you stick with your first decision and how you are influenced by an obvious suggestion to change it because, supposedly, "70% people before you did", so to change the logic by ...


1

Intelligence as measured by g is most associated with Openness, at modest levels, about r = .10-.15, meaning that only 1% of the variance of each is explained by the other.


1

These studies investigated the abilities of participants to guess peoples' personalities from photos of their faces. Extraverts' faces were judged as more extraverted by participants. Ian S. Penton-Voak, Nicholas Pound, Anthony C. Little, and David I. Perrett(2006). Personality Judgments from Natural and Composite Facial Images: More Evidence For A “...


1

It's unclear what is your definition of attributes. But the Big Five emerged from the lexical hypothesis whereby adjectives in the dictionary that describe people were systematically examined and categorised using approaches such as factor analysis. Some of the papers in this area would contain lists of terms. Equally, for briefer lists, you could look at ...


1

Whilst I am a defender of Freudian and Neo-Freudian psychology, please be aware that this covers areas of psychology considered by some here to be pseudoscientific. With that in mind, you are right to question the hyposthesis that any defence mechanism involved would be displacement. Ego defence mechanisms theorized by Sigmund Freud, could have a role in ...


1

There are a few studies that have correlated Big 5 with conflict styles. There are various terminology and measures but many use a similar set of five styles to the TKI. Antonioni (1998) is highly cited. Here are the correlations. In short: The five conflict styles are correlated in ways that partially reflect the underlying two-dimensions of interested ...


1

Given the asker's assertion (in a comment) that White guilt results in Black people being killed here's a repetition of what is usually meant by this term (copied from Wikipedia): White guilt is the individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for harm resulting from racist treatment of ethnic minorities by other white people both ...


1

It depends on the individual (and possibly the trauma). Stockholm Syndrome, where captives develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity can onset very quickly (in the original case 6 days). There are also cases where people are actively trying to escape and do not feel a bond with individuals.


1

Most any book on codependency will mention substance abuse, if for no other reason than the concept began there. Treatment of codependency is about empowering the person who is the caregiver to stop that sort of behavior. The best book I can recommend (I'm a LMHC) is Codependent No More. I would also suggest looking at Attachment Theory, as some researchers ...


1

The IPIP scales are in the public domain: https://ipip.ori.org/ They are intended to have no restrictions on use. https://ipip.ori.org/newPermission.htm Because the IPIP has been placed in the public domain, permission has already been automatically granted for any person to use IPIP items, scales, and inventories for any purpose, commercial or non-...


1

Which sub-field of psychology deals with differences in human intelligence? As in, what makes someone an intellectual genius? Broadly speaking, the study of individual differences in psychology is called differential psychology. Psychometrics is the study of psychological measurements, an extremely important part of intelligence research. Or, maybe a bit ...


1

There's now a meta-analysis by Muris et al. (2017) which is a little more fine grained because also takes into account intercorrelation between these three; i.e. Muris et al. report effect sizes both uncorrected and corrected (for shared variance). There are somewhat obvious (at least for the uncorrected effects) conclusions that the authors draw: As ...


1

The widely accepted answer to this question is that homosexuality is not a choice but science has no concrete answer as to exactly why people are homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual (or any other sexual orientations that one may identify with). The Wikipedia page, Homosexuality, offers many great references and indicates that science has not definitive ...


1

Personality testing of (potential) employees is big business, according to the BBC: A 2014 survey of global HR professionals by CEB, one of the largest providers of online talent tests, indicated that 62% of respondents used some sort of personality test pre-hire. Thirty percent indicated that personality assessments would be used to identify high ...


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