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In response to your question on the prevalence of NPD, I've listed some research here: Dhawan, Kunik, Oldham, and Coverdale (2010) did a systematic review of literature on the prevalence and treatment of NPD from Jan 1980 to Aug 2008. Twenge and Foster (2010) updates a US based meta analysis of the prevalence of NPD among college students (based on ...


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I think what you are asking pertains to how learned helplessness is defined. If sticking to the traditional behavioral definition, then yes, 'learned helpless' is a response to an accumulation of stimulus-response events. See (Lerner, et al. 2018) However, if you depart from the traditional behavioral definition, you can incorporate the individuals role in ...


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