13

According to current models of human concept learning, the answer to your question is both. Think of a simplified domain in which every object consists of only several features, and therefore can be visualized as a point in some multidimensional feature space. For example, the features that define objects might be its size, shape, color, and weight. ...


7

The two concepts are analogous and mutually illustrative, but empirically refer to different levels of analysis: behavioral and neural. Habituation Habituation is a form of non-associative learning, specifically, learning that a stimulus is behaviorally unimportant. If I loudly and repeatedly bang on a metal pot immediately behind your head, you will ...


6

Consider the colour visual system. Take 3 monochromatic (in the physics sense) light sources of wavelength $420 \; nm$, $534 \; nm$, and $564 \; nm$; i.e. the peaks of spectral sensitivity for cones. Your 3 physical parameters are then 3 knobs $b$, $g$, $r$ that control the intensity of each light source as they shine on the same white surface. If you want ...


5

Your question is extremely broad so all I can do is give you an extremely broad answer. More specifically, I'll provide you a study done by John Hattie (2008), who meta-analyzed 800(!!) meta-analyses on effective teaching methods, used in primary education among others. The linked document shows a "brief" overview of the different methods rated and sorted ...


4

Short answer Generally, a few months of active, guided training. Background Based on an article from a guide cane instructor who is a cane traveler himself, I can answer the question as follows: First off - it depends on at least three important variables; The student's background; The student's aptitude; the amount of time available to the student. ...


4

General literature on training and educational program evaluation In general, you would want to read up about program evaluation in general, and educational program evaluation, and training evaluation in particular. With regards to the educational context I found this article online. With regards to training evaluation, you could check out Kraiger et al (...


2

Quote from article at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23805119 Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' ...


2

I've found an additional concept that may be related to the original question: prototype theory. Here's a summary from Wikipedia: Prototype theory is a mode of graded categorization in cognitive science, where some members of a category are more central than others. For example, when asked to give an example of the concept furniture, chair is more ...


2

From the book memory the following extract might be helpful: …, the association between a stimulus and a trace will be weakened whenever that trace is retrieved inappropriately. In effect, the bond between the cue and the target gets “punished”. For example, suppose that you try to retrieve the new password to your e-mail account. According to the ...


2

No, it's not due to synaptic pruning. If it were due to synaptic pruning babies would have better vision(esp. Peripheral) but that is not the case. Babies only have better hearing. No, it is not exactly a learning process. Most of the foveal developmental starts during the prenatal period and complete by 18 months postnatal.Most of the inter-individual ...


2

As mentioned in the definitions section on page 2 of the paper, $D(q||p) = <ln(q/p)>_q$ is the Kullback-Leibler divergence or cross-entropy between two densities. The reason for the negative logs is that is the convention when discussing entropy in the context of information theory. This allows information to be combined additively. (https://en....


2

Short answer From what I know from the literature, adapting to prism glasses mainly finds it origins in adaptation of behavioral motor control. Background The adaptation to wearing prism glasses is often ascribed to the adaptation of the proprioceptive system, i.e., subjects adapt their motor behavior to compensate for the visual field shift (e.g., Richter ...


2

Straight answer: No. There is no such thing as free lunch when it comes to learning material. Your question is based on the studies of hypno-learning (learning by listening to tapes while sleeping) which has never received empirical support. To memorize in long-term memory you need: Deep encoding. Deep encoding requires transforming the material to things ...


2

First off, if you want to retain information, you have to actively listen to it. Simply putting it on like you would background music is not going to help that much. However, if you do want to learn by listening to a lecture, there are several strategies you can use. Here are some listening strategies you can try to employ. They are mostly targeted at being ...


2

Watching others perform a skill serves as both instruction and visualization practice. The instruction can provide the beginner with a wealth of information that they lack, when starting a skill. It provides the experienced practitioner with details of technique that informs their growth. How productive watching can be sometimes depends upon previous ...


2

There is the structure called the Fusiform-face area (FFA), which is located in the low tempero-parietal region. In human studies, the FFA has shown to highlight strongly when you look at a human face, as opposed to any other (inanimate) object. This is what the region got its name from. However, it is believed that the FFA is not necessarily a face area (...


1

A newborn baby has difficulty focusing its eyes or telling the difference between two objects presented to it. A baby learns to recognise its mothers face within the first week after birth, long before it can recognise objects that are not faces. They already show a preference for face-like visual stimuli while in the womb. The Human Fetus ...


1

see Lisman, J. E. and Otmakhova, N. A. (2001), Storage, recall, and novelty detection of sequences by the hippocampus: Elaborating on the SOCRATIC model to account for normal and aberrant effects of dopamine. Hippocampus, 11: 551–568. doi: 10.1002/hipo.1071: http://wwww.bio.brandeis.edu/lismanlab/pdf/socratic.pdf for one proposed mechanism. in short, local ...


1

In physics, exponential of negative energy is often probability (e.g. in maximum entropy models). || is a notation used in divergences (or info theory) where the order matters. That is $D(A||B) \neq D(B||A)$ as in KL divergence


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible