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Correct me if I'm wrong here, but after some more reading and thinking this is what I took away: both the term 'prediction' and 'cause' here refer to the maximum likelihood of a distribution ($Y$), meaning the probability of an event ($X$), given sensory data ($Y_{1}$) and the likelihood given prior data ($Y_{2}$) . Even though maybe seemingly orthogonal to ...


Pareidolia is the term you are looking for. It is often used for the specific case you mention of seeing faces in other objects, but it's actually a more general concept that covers other types of patterns and even other (non-visual) modalities. A search of Google Scholar returns many relevant results.

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