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Correct me if I'm wrong here, but after some more reading and thinking this is what I took away: both the term 'prediction' and 'cause' here refer to the maximum likelihood of a distribution ($Y$), meaning the probability of an event ($X$), given sensory data ($Y_{1}$) and the likelihood given prior data ($Y_{2}$) . Even though maybe seemingly orthogonal to ...


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Pareidolia is the term you are looking for. It is often used for the specific case you mention of seeing faces in other objects, but it's actually a more general concept that covers other types of patterns and even other (non-visual) modalities. A search of Google Scholar returns many relevant results.


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