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This is usually referred to as emotional expression or affect display, which can be verbal as well as non-verbal, whereas body language is exclusively non-verbal, and not exclusive to emotion. This function can certainly go wrong: There are a few disorders that show deficiency in emotional expression and response. These include alexithymia, autism, ...


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Ramachandran's original research can be found at: Ramachandran V. S. (2005). Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology. Clinical medicine (London, England), 5(4), 368–373. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.5-4-368 A replication study has subsequently been performed: Daniëlle Ezendam, Raoul M. Bongers & Michiel J. A. Jannink (2009) Systematic ...


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Mirror neurons exist and have been recorded from in primates and humans - these are cells that respond to the actions and inferred perceptions of others. In papers by Ramachandran and others, they have shown that patients who have their arm anesthetized report experiencing a sensation of touch when they see someone else's arm touched: Case, L. K., Abrams, R. ...


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Before I even start to try answering this question, it should be said that there is no clear and definitive answer. Endless debates are everywhere on the subject of consciousness but nothing has come close to becoming concrete, since many fields of knowledge have very different thing to say (like biology, philosophy, and of course, psychology). So, as a ...


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As in everything in psychology and the studies of behaviour and the brain, there are many interpretations for the extremely complicated process of learning. If you want to check a basic (But detailed) book on most of the early understandings on the subject of Learning, I recommend anything written by Michael Domjan; specially "The Principles of Learning ...


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The paper you are linking to is an abstract presented on the Vision Sciences Society Annual Meeting of 2011. Study abstracts are submitted to the conference organizers and often appear in the conference program and/or on the conference web site. They describe the work that will be/has been presented as an oral or poster presentation on a conference. Often ...


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We refer to neurons that are connected to each other as having a "reciprocal" connection (however, the term is also used to refer to regional reciprocal connections in addition to neuron-neuron connections). For typical neurons, much more than one input is necessary to reach action potential threshold, so you wouldn't expect reciprocally connected ...


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Google Scholar identifies several learned articles that discuss the association/overlap between bipolar disorder type 2 and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including: Khanzada, N. S., Butler, M. G., & Manzardo, A. M. (2017). GeneAnalytics pathway analysis and genetic overlap among autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. ...


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The first sentence of the abstract is: Rats given a series of shocks exhibit a potentiated startle response to a loud acoustic stimulus compared to nonshocked animals Shock sensitization to startle refers to how giving a series of shocks results in a stronger startle in response to a startling acoustic stimulus. The first sentence of the introduction is: ...


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