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In physiology, "tonic" refers to something roughly continuous or static. In terms of receptor activation, tonic typically means there is some small quantity of agonist present such that the receptor is always activated a little bit. The receptors mediating tonic effects are typically "extrasynaptic": outside the synapse, and typically have higher affinity ...


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Turns out these pulses are due to software latency in the OpenBCI GUI. One particular widget, the headshot widget, uses a lot of the CPU causing packet delay, and leads to the pulse pattern. Once the headshot widget is turned off, then the pulse artifact disappears. https://github.com/OpenBCI/OpenBCI_GUI/issues/349


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I think the definition you found from OED is fine. Dictionary definitions are often not really ideal for terms used in biology, you learn more from examples and usage, for example the quote you gave about upper motor neurons. can I say that a neuron projects to another neuron, to mean that the axon of the first connects to some dendrite of the second? ...


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A similar question has been discussed on the Meta site associated with this Stack. In summary: Psychology Today doesn't really have any legitimacy to invalidate in the first place. It's just a collection of blogs without any peer review process. Psychology Today is a popular science magazine, not a peer-reviewed publication. There are some good articles on ...


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General anesthesia is a reversible drug-induced neurophysiological state comprised of unconsciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and immobility with maintenance of physiological stability. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is still not completely understood, but general anesthesia is essential for the safe and humane conduct of surgical ...


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General anesthesia is a drug-induced reversible state defined by five end points: Unconsciousness, lack of awareness of sensory input Analgesia, lack of pain Akinesia, lack of movement Amnesia, lack of recall Physiological stability, the preservation of normal levels of all vital physiological functions, such as respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and ...


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When a sodium (Na) channel is stimulated by a strong-enough stimulus (such as from an electrical stimulus or from an incoming action potential), it will open and let a lot of Na+ ions influx rapidly into the cell at that channel, creating an action potential there. The locally high concentration of Na+ ion inside the cell at that channel will cause Na+ ions ...


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