13

The frequency is individual, and known as tinnitus frequency or pitch. From Okamoto et al., 2010: Our target notched music introduced a functional deafferentation of auditory neurons corresponding to the eliminated frequency band, and because this frequency band overlapped the individual tinnitus frequency, the notched music no longer ...


12

It is not widely thought that impaired function or destruction of the fusiform is sufficient to produce prosoganosia. It is currently widely held that face processing involves a network of regions in the occipital and temporal lobes (e.g., the occipital face area, posterior superior temporal sulus, anterior superior temporal sulus, anterior collateral sulcus)...


10

I believe the answer lies in minicolumnar morphology in the neocortex. It's been shown that the minicolumns of autsitics and gifted individuals have narrower minicolumns, with greater spacing between each minicolumn. It's speculated that this creates an increased ability to distinguish percepts. Here is a paper on the topic: Casanova MF, Switala AE, Trippe ...


10

Feeling as though you have seen a face before is perfectly normal. It may reflect actual similarities between the new face and the face you have seen before. There are people who genuinely look like each other, an example being celebrity look-a-likes. It may also reflect a commonly observed cultural/ethnic effect where people of a different ethnicity look ...


10

There are many, many more neuromodulators in the brain than that. Essentially anything that binds to G-protein coupled receptors could be considered a neuromodulator. Even "classic" fast neurotransmitters like GABA and glutamate have "neuromodulatory" receptors (GABA-B receptors for GABA, 3 different families of "metabotropic glutamate receptors"). ...


8

This is only one possible pathway. There are many potential ones. Further the fact that this is possible does not mean that it is the case always. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. For example, a meta-analysis by Dickerson et al. (2004) demonstrated that an acute laboratory based stressor reliably increased cortisol levels, ...


7

Broca is generally considered the first person to localise structure to function, however, there are some earlier individuals to consider: EDIT: i recommend the chapter Neurolinguistics from the Middle Ages to the Pre-Modern Era: Historical Vignettes in: Stemmer, B. & Whittaker, H.A. (1998). Handbook of Neurolinguistics. Academic Press: London. it has ...


6

Phineas Gage had his famous spike through the head in 1848, which lead to some discoveries about the function of that area, but these were quite general. See: Harlow, J. M. (1869). Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Clapp. But, Broca appears to be the first to identify a specific area: In 1861, the French surgeon, Pierre Paul ...


6

Although I find the concept of flow quite interesting, I'm not so sure about needing to invoke the flow state to explain motor enhancement from unrelated continuous movements. For example, one possible explanation for why continuous motion would improve learned movements like typing is that the motor cortex is typically used to model periodic movements as a ...


5

Yes, though not necessarily in the way that you are meaning - some prosopagnosics will have damage to the area in question, so you could say the activity is lower because there is not much left of it! Quick google reveals this paper: http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/8/1878.abstract It's recent so will probably review the evidence you are ...


5

I think this is an interesting, but difficult question to answer. Hemispatial neglect patients do not typically have problem with visual pathways per se. Wikipedia suggests that the disorder is most closely linked to damage of the temporo-parietal junction and posterior parietal cortex, areas associated with attention. Thus, the sensation (e.g. on the ...


4

I personaly also play piano and see myself into that flow easly, Check out what I just found From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_(psychology) Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, ...


4

for the record, and as confirmation of what the above answers affirm regarding ancient times here is the abstract from a fairly recent historical review of the subject: Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus ...


4

The best thing you can do is avoid nutritional deficiencies and exercise. In general, it's the same as for the rest of the body. Many people have subtle nutritional deficiencies that they may never know about their whole life just based on eating habits. As Chuck Sherrington said, neurotransmitter-based treatments are subject to homeostatic compensation, ...


4

You might be referring to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). It is transmitted through exposure to brain tissue and spinal cord fluid from infected individuals. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. The leading scientific theory at this time maintains that CJD and the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by a ...


3

How do the rationality and logical thought processes those with and without ADHD compare? Please explain the source of this difference. Is the difference thought to be caused by dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine or some other neurological explanation. ADHD is typically associated with a reduction in dopamine and/or norepinephrine. Though the two ...


3

Apoptosis is the programmed death of a cell. This is not required for pruning of connections. During development, axons and dendrites of neurons undergo extensive lengthening, branching and also retraction. Simultaneous with this process, many many synapses are being constructed and deconstructed between axons and nearby dendrites. Also during adulthood, ...


3

yes, here is a nice paper which shows evidence : http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131017/srep02972/full/srep02972.html from the paper : " a report commissioned by the National Football League (NFL), showed that retired players between the ages of 30–49 were 20 times more likely, at a rate of 1.9%, to receive a diagnosis of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), ...


3

I don't know much about this, but here are a few review articles (see here for more) that you could look at: Heilman, K. M., & Valenstein, E. (1979). Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Annals of Neurology, 5(2), 166-170. http://www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/~raha/CogSci600_web/Readings/Danckert3.pdf Parton, A., Malhotra, P., & Husain, M. (2004). ...


3

There are many who will tell you authoritatively that a disease is acquired (e.g. infection, cancer, etc.) whereas disorder is something curable or genetic. These are imprecise and untrue. Basically a disturbance in normal functioning can be either a disorder or a disease, regardless of it's curability or method of acquisition. From your link, the second ...


3

This is a very broad question. I'll simplify greatly. Like most systems, the brain regulates it's moment-to-moment energy needs through control of it's vascular supply. While the vascular supply (to the heart and brain) is regulated (by both baroreceptors and other) to protect against decreased blood flow (that is, the heart and the brain will be ...


3

Not all medications administer dopamine in the same way. For treating Parkinson's specifically, dopamine-boosting medications such as L-DOPA (which are notable for their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, which dopamine itself cannot do) are often administered with a DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) or with a benserazide to prevent peripheral ...


3

Why would I be asked to count backwards by 3, from 100 in a psychological test? This is to test your cognitive reasoning abilities, particularly your ability to concentrate and recall serial information. Similar tests are administered to injured sports players to ensure that they do not have a concussion. 1 What's a baker's dozen? What do you think "...


3

Top-down knowledge is knowing what a target is. When detecting an object, the rate at which you can detect it (measured via reaction time, or 'RT') is partially dependent on how fast you can identify it based on its sensory features. Bottom-up knowledge is integrating recognition of the features, or the dimensions of an object, such as its color, ...


3

Short answer Symptoms of hemi-neglect are often accompanied by additional layers of cognitive deficits that make rehabilitation challenging. Logic reason is often dissociated from these patients' perceptions, or they simply dismiss there is a problem altogether. Background Hemineglect is the impaired or lost ability to react to, or process sensory stimuli ...


3

The short answer to your question Can a person with delusions completely acknowledge their delusions is yes. But it depends. There are quite a few psychological disorders that have symptoms of delusion or hallucination. Bentall et al. (2009) took a look at the structure of paranoid delusions. They concluded that emotion related and cognitive processes ...


2

Stam et al. have carried out a functional connectivity study in patients with Alzheimer's Disease. I don't know if that answers your question at all. Connectomics is just starting to kick off. It's far from certain that they it will end up being a key player in functional neuropathology in the coming decades, but it's one out of many promising new avenues of ...


2

There appear to be more than your two basic problems: see Wikipedia's list of characteristics. Subjective difficulty in producing speech appears to be one particularly plausible reason to self-initiate treatment. I don't see any indication of a lack of concern for how speech is received by others. Some forms seem to be progressive, but not all are: ...


2

Parkinson's Disease, as you note, is believed to occur due to damage or degeneration to the basal ganglia, especially the substantia nigra. Cells in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra produce dopamine, and in fact, the majority of the brain's dopaminergic cells have their bodies here, but that isn't the whole story. From Kandel's Principles of Neural ...


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