13

The frequency is individual, and known as tinnitus frequency or pitch. From Okamoto et al., 2010: Our target notched music introduced a functional deafferentation of auditory neurons corresponding to the eliminated frequency band, and because this frequency band overlapped the individual tinnitus frequency, the notched music no longer stimulated the ...


7

Broca is generally considered the first person to localise structure to function, however, there are some earlier individuals to consider: EDIT: i recommend the chapter Neurolinguistics from the Middle Ages to the Pre-Modern Era: Historical Vignettes in: Stemmer, B. & Whittaker, H.A. (1998). Handbook of Neurolinguistics. Academic Press: London. it has a ...


6

Phineas Gage had his famous spike through the head in 1848, which lead to some discoveries about the function of that area, but these were quite general. See: Harlow, J. M. (1869). Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Clapp. But, Broca appears to be the first to identify a specific area: In 1861, the French surgeon, Pierre Paul ...


6

Although I find the concept of flow quite interesting, I'm not so sure about needing to invoke the flow state to explain motor enhancement from unrelated continuous movements. For example, one possible explanation for why continuous motion would improve learned movements like typing is that the motor cortex is typically used to model periodic movements as a ...


5

I think this is an interesting, but difficult question to answer. Hemispatial neglect patients do not typically have problem with visual pathways per se. Wikipedia suggests that the disorder is most closely linked to damage of the temporo-parietal junction and posterior parietal cortex, areas associated with attention. Thus, the sensation (e.g. on the ...


4

I personaly also play piano and see myself into that flow easly, Check out what I just found From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flow_(psychology) Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, ...


4

for the record, and as confirmation of what the above answers affirm regarding ancient times here is the abstract from a fairly recent historical review of the subject: Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus ...


4

You might be referring to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). It is transmitted through exposure to brain tissue and spinal cord fluid from infected individuals. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. The leading scientific theory at this time maintains that CJD and the other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by a ...


3

Short answer Symptoms of hemi-neglect are often accompanied by additional layers of cognitive deficits that make rehabilitation challenging. Logic reason is often dissociated from these patients' perceptions, or they simply dismiss there is a problem altogether. Background Hemineglect is the impaired or lost ability to react to, or process sensory stimuli ...


3

Apoptosis is the programmed death of a cell. This is not required for pruning of connections. During development, axons and dendrites of neurons undergo extensive lengthening, branching and also retraction. Simultaneous with this process, many many synapses are being constructed and deconstructed between axons and nearby dendrites. Also during adulthood, ...


3

yes, here is a nice paper which shows evidence : http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131017/srep02972/full/srep02972.html from the paper : " a report commissioned by the National Football League (NFL), showed that retired players between the ages of 30–49 were 20 times more likely, at a rate of 1.9%, to receive a diagnosis of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), ...


3

Top-down knowledge is knowing what a target is. When detecting an object, the rate at which you can detect it (measured via reaction time, or 'RT') is partially dependent on how fast you can identify it based on its sensory features. Bottom-up knowledge is integrating recognition of the features, or the dimensions of an object, such as its color, ...


3

Why would I be asked to count backwards by 3, from 100 in a psychological test? This is to test your cognitive reasoning abilities, particularly your ability to concentrate and recall serial information. Similar tests are administered to injured sports players to ensure that they do not have a concussion. 1 What's a baker's dozen? What do you think "...


3

How do the rationality and logical thought processes those with and without ADHD compare? Please explain the source of this difference. Is the difference thought to be caused by dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine or some other neurological explanation. ADHD is typically associated with a reduction in dopamine and/or norepinephrine. Though the two ...


3

There are many who will tell you authoritatively that a disease is acquired (e.g. infection, cancer, etc.) whereas disorder is something curable or genetic. These are imprecise and untrue. Basically a disturbance in normal functioning can be either a disorder or a disease, regardless of it's curability or method of acquisition. From your link, the second ...


3

This is a very broad question. I'll simplify greatly. Like most systems, the brain regulates it's moment-to-moment energy needs through control of it's vascular supply. While the vascular supply (to the heart and brain) is regulated (by both baroreceptors and other) to protect against decreased blood flow (that is, the heart and the brain will be ...


3

Not all medications administer dopamine in the same way. For treating Parkinson's specifically, dopamine-boosting medications such as L-DOPA (which are notable for their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, which dopamine itself cannot do) are often administered with a DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor (DDCI) or with a benserazide to prevent peripheral ...


3

I don't know much about this, but here are a few review articles (see here for more) that you could look at: Heilman, K. M., & Valenstein, E. (1979). Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Annals of Neurology, 5(2), 166-170. http://www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/~raha/CogSci600_web/Readings/Danckert3.pdf Parton, A., Malhotra, P., & Husain, M. (2004). ...


3

The short answer to your question Can a person with delusions completely acknowledge their delusions is yes. But it depends. There are quite a few psychological disorders that have symptoms of delusion or hallucination. Bentall et al. (2009) took a look at the structure of paranoid delusions. They concluded that emotion related and cognitive processes ...


3

recognize familiar faces The distinction between familiar and unfamiliar faces with the prosopagnosia seems to be more a wiki thing than in clinical or common usage. The defintion does not seem fixed. NINDs defines it as "characterized by the inability to recognize faces" rather than only just familiar faces. So sufferers "use other ways to identify people, ...


3

First, your question pertains to two possible populations: "less long-lasting" PTSD is diagnosed as acute stress disorder (ASD); PTSD cannot be diagnosed until at least one month after exposure to the inciting trauma, and ASD sometimes resolves without progression to PTSD. "less intense" PTSD is usually diagnosed as an adjustment ...


2

Dopamine receptor agonists related to reckless driving and gambling There are three case reports provided by Reactions Weekly (2010) demonstrating correlations between treatment with dopamine receptor agonists and reckless driving: Reckless driving occurred in three patients during treatment with dopamine receptor agonists (DA) ... DA are associated ...


2

Stam et al. have carried out a functional connectivity study in patients with Alzheimer's Disease. I don't know if that answers your question at all. Connectomics is just starting to kick off. It's far from certain that they it will end up being a key player in functional neuropathology in the coming decades, but it's one out of many promising new avenues of ...


2

There appear to be more than your two basic problems: see Wikipedia's list of characteristics. Subjective difficulty in producing speech appears to be one particularly plausible reason to self-initiate treatment. I don't see any indication of a lack of concern for how speech is received by others. Some forms seem to be progressive, but not all are: ...


2

Parkinson's Disease, as you note, is believed to occur due to damage or degeneration to the basal ganglia, especially the substantia nigra. Cells in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra produce dopamine, and in fact, the majority of the brain's dopaminergic cells have their bodies here, but that isn't the whole story. From Kandel's Principles of Neural ...


2

The evidence in support of binaural beats as a therapeutic tool is sketchy: Is there scientific evidence on the benefits of binaural beats? Given our lack of understanding of if binaural beats can cause entrainment in the brain, never mind how they cause entrainment, it is not possibly to make conclusions about how the binaural beat would affect the autistic ...


2

An inability to watch others in pain can be described as an empathetic reaction, which mirror neurons aren't necessarily responsible for. Mirror neurons are hypothesized to facilitate 'action understanding'. In other words, they are able to recognize the intentions of others' actions, thereby allowing them to anticipate their future actions. What may be ...


2

The primary visual cortex is topographic, which means that specific parts of that brain region correspond exactly to specific parts of your visual field. In order to prove that a scotoma (literally a blind spot in your vision) is due to dysfunctional neurons, all you need to do is show that the neurons responsible for that spot in your vision are not working ...


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