17

It's unclear whether follow-up tests were ever performed on Lorber's patients, and in particular the student referenced by Lewin. Patient confidentiality precludes a systematic search of the literature, particularly because the Lewin (1980) article does not provide a pseudonym with which we can use to track the patient (e.g. "HM"). It is possible that this ...


15

There is no better way to describe brain activity than brain waves! :) There are newer ways to analyze and think about brain waves, though. Usually you will find these under literature on neuronal oscillations. Good aspects of thinking about brain activity using brain waves: Brain waves are directly related to neural activity. They are an electric or ...


12

As a slight modification of your statement: blood flow increases wherever activity in the brain increases. The type of fMRI that uses this principle is blood-oxygenation-level-dependent fMRI or BOLD fMRI. MRI in general detects signals by picking up proton signals from water molecules. This proton signal is basically caused by magnetizing the protons ...


12

Yes and no. Source estimation has been utilized in electrical engineering for decades, but is becoming more and more prevalent in the EEG realm, especially in light of efforts to register EEG readings with concurrent fMRI studies. Basically, given a set of EEG (or even MEG, magnetoencephalographic) measurements, can we "invert" them to find the individual ...


9

Not only can brain activation be controlled though consciousness (which is expected under most reductionist accounts of the mind-brain problem) and measured in the lab (as @Jeff's answer showed) but it can actually be used as an interface! Erik Ramsey is locked-in syndrome patient and is incapable of movement apart from his eyes. However, he has control of ...


8

The thing neuroscientists do is look at the differences in brain activity. They thus don't see "a high activity in brain area X". Instead, they see, between condition A and B, a difference in activity in brain area X. These differences can be both positive and negative, and each may receive it's own explanation. There must thus always be some kind of ...


8

Based on a review by Kolb et al, 2012, it seems that "the brain is finished developing by 25" refers to the point when synaptic pruning in the cerebral cortex levels off, on average. However, the prefrontal cortex, the region most unique to humans and involved in executive function, develops in this way well into the third decade of life. The above review ...


7

This is a complicated and loaded question. As Neuroskeptic noted, our understanding of consciousness is very poor (in fact, we don't know how to define it most of the time). To see some of the best current definitions, take a look at: What are current neuronal explanations and models of 'consciousness'? We definitely can't infer arbitrary properties of ...


7

I'm surprised that no one has mentioned spiking activity. The spatial and temporal resolutions are phenomenal. The technology to record action potentials simultaneously from many neurons over many cortical areas is growing. Much of theoretical neuroscience deals with how those patterns of spiking convey information. As with the other answers, I will add ...


7

I'm only going to attempt to answer a small part of your question: how does glial activation affect the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response measured by fMRI? Schulz et al. (2012) were able to investigate the role of glial signaling on fMRI activity by simultaneously measuring neuronal responses with invasive optical imaging and fMRI. They found ...


6

http://sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab/ http://chronux.org are two libraries with tons of functions for analyzing eeg and emg data


6

Resonance methods can be used to measure neurotransmitter levels. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy can measure the levels of a large number of neurotransmitters. However, this has always been viewed as a fairly static measure of neurotransmitter levels, and so has not been widely used as a measure of neural activity. However, Paul Mullins at Bangor University ...


6

I found an example of a system that researchers are aiming to use in the future for determining the level of neurotransmitter activity in the brain using MRI. You were on the right track with the utility of hemoglobin. The molecule used is somewhat similar. To understand how the probes were generated requires a bit of a biological detour. There are ...


6

Bearing in mind the fact that I can't prove a negative, I'm going to say "No, it's not (yet) possible". Flow is rather loosely defined (e.g. "merging of action and awareness"), so coming up with hard measures is a challenge in and of itself -- even without bringing electrophysiology into the equasion. As a Positive Psychology concept, it belongs to the ...


5

Complexity. That is, the fundamental laws governing the behavior isn't terribly difficult to comprehend or model. However, putting it all together and hoping it reproduces the correct behavior is a great challenge. Once you develop a model that has the appropriate underlying mechanisms in it's components, you still have to put them all together and ...


5

Yes, the effects of electromagnetic fields on the brain have been studied extensively, especially with respect to cellphone, WiFi, and other small devices that emit such fields. The results are typically mixed, but the overall consensus is that "it depends" - on the strength of the field, the environment, length of exposure, etc - and most modern consumer ...


5

Here is the first study with fMRI, EEG and eye-video simultaneously recorded while subjects were performing a task (Poudel et al., 2014). "fMRI analysis revealed a transient decrease in thalamic, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortex activity and an increase in frontal, posterior parietal, and parahippocampal activity during microsleeps. The transient ...


5

Have you tried: connectomeviewer http://www.connectomeviewer.org/viewer brainnetviewer http://www.nitrc.org/projects/bnv/ which is a toolbox for the SPM software package http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/ Gephi http://gephi.org/ Trackvis http://trackvis.org/ Also Nico Dosenbach has some amazing picture of brain connectivity in this paper http://www.ncbi....


5

It's a bit of an art, currently. Following is one technique I witnessed in a lab that takes electrophysiological recordings of tadpole and rat neurvous sytems. The lab that I worked with entrains the neuron, recording it's electrical activity (in a series of drug tests) and injects a marker that goes into the neuron (a GFP-like protein that binds to ...


5

Nature Neuroscience offers such a possibility. http://www.nature.com/news/nature-journals-offer-double-blind-review-1.16931 See also Does anyone know of any clinical psychology journals that use a double-blind review process?


5

I found that dF/F0 stands for the relative difference in fluorescence at a certain wavelength.


5

From meta-analyses that include musical emotion inductions, there is not much evidence that we can reliably distinguish between emotions in the brain, independent of the emotion induction procedure or meta-analytical method (1 2 3 4 5). We might be able to distinguish emotions with specificity and reliability within an individual, but this kind of work is ...


4

Firstly, you wouldn't be directly controlling neurotransmitter. From the human perspective, you'd be controlling higher-level events (and they aren't necessarily describable on more than a phenomenological level). Of course, this would also lead to some changes in neurotransmitter release, but in a complex way: that's all handled at a lower level by the ...


4

You're describing Hypnagogia. There has been some research on the EEG states during hypnagogia: To identify more precisely the nature of the EEG state which accompanies imagery in the transition from wakefulness to sleep, Hori et al. proposed a scheme of 9 EEG stages defined by varying proportions of alpha (stages 1–3), suppressed waves of less than 20μV ...


4

Michelle Heijblom's (2009) master thesis on Visualising tinnitus with fMRI and EEG mentions the following: Different studies report that tinnitus is characterised by an increase in slow-wave activity (0.5- 4Hz: delta activity) and a decrease in alpha activity (8-12 Hz) at temporal regions. Recently it has been suggested that this loss of alpha power ...


4

Unfortunately not. The closest publication would be Lee et al 2016, which is a reconstruction of a network of functionally-characterised neurons in mouse V1. They state the data "will be available" at neurodata; currently only the EM dataset appears to be there, and not the correspondence with functional imaging. I encourage you to contact them for the data ...


4

For a broad meaning of "similarly", the answer is yes, the processing of sign language has substantial similarities with that of spoken language, in terms of brain areas involved. There are also some differences; the latter issue is a vast and still somewhat controversial research area; from the conclusion of a 2007 review: Where differences can ...


3

Like lea's comment indicated, FA is called "fractional" anisotropy simply because it's the degree of anisotropic diffusion, i.e., a ratio (Soares, Marques, Alves and Sousa, 2013). Fractional Anisotropy is a normalized measure of the fraction of the tensor's magnitude due to anisotropic diffusion, corresponding to the degree of anisotropic diffusion or ...


3

T2 weighted MRI scans can reveal white matter lesions, so that may explain the detection of demyelination. Of course, that's not fMRI...


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