12

As a slight modification of your statement: blood flow increases wherever activity in the brain increases. The type of fMRI that uses this principle is blood-oxygenation-level-dependent fMRI or BOLD fMRI. MRI in general detects signals by picking up proton signals from water molecules. This proton signal is basically caused by magnetizing the protons ...


8

The thing neuroscientists do is look at the differences in brain activity. They thus don't see "a high activity in brain area X". Instead, they see, between condition A and B, a difference in activity in brain area X. These differences can be both positive and negative, and each may receive it's own explanation. There must thus always be some kind of ...


8

Based on a review by Kolb et al, 2012, it seems that "the brain is finished developing by 25" refers to the point when synaptic pruning in the cerebral cortex levels off, on average. However, the prefrontal cortex, the region most unique to humans and involved in executive function, develops in this way well into the third decade of life. The above review ...


7

I'm only going to attempt to answer a small part of your question: how does glial activation affect the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response measured by fMRI? Schulz et al. (2012) were able to investigate the role of glial signaling on fMRI activity by simultaneously measuring neuronal responses with invasive optical imaging and fMRI. They found ...


7

This is a complicated and loaded question. As Neuroskeptic noted, our understanding of consciousness is very poor (in fact, we don't know how to define it most of the time). To see some of the best current definitions, take a look at: What are current neuronal explanations and models of 'consciousness'? We definitely can't infer arbitrary properties of ...


6

http://sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab/ http://chronux.org are two libraries with tons of functions for analyzing eeg and emg data


6

Bearing in mind the fact that I can't prove a negative, I'm going to say "No, it's not (yet) possible". Flow is rather loosely defined (e.g. "merging of action and awareness"), so coming up with hard measures is a challenge in and of itself -- even without bringing electrophysiology into the equasion. As a Positive Psychology concept, it belongs to the ...


5

Nature Neuroscience offers such a possibility. http://www.nature.com/news/nature-journals-offer-double-blind-review-1.16931 See also Does anyone know of any clinical psychology journals that use a double-blind review process?


5

Complexity. That is, the fundamental laws governing the behavior isn't terribly difficult to comprehend or model. However, putting it all together and hoping it reproduces the correct behavior is a great challenge. Once you develop a model that has the appropriate underlying mechanisms in it's components, you still have to put them all together and ...


5

Yes, the effects of electromagnetic fields on the brain have been studied extensively, especially with respect to cellphone, WiFi, and other small devices that emit such fields. The results are typically mixed, but the overall consensus is that "it depends" - on the strength of the field, the environment, length of exposure, etc - and most modern consumer ...


5

Here is the first study with fMRI, EEG and eye-video simultaneously recorded while subjects were performing a task (Poudel et al., 2014). "fMRI analysis revealed a transient decrease in thalamic, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortex activity and an increase in frontal, posterior parietal, and parahippocampal activity during microsleeps. The transient ...


5

Michelle Heijblom's (2009) master thesis on Visualising tinnitus with fMRI and EEG mentions the following: Different studies report that tinnitus is characterised by an increase in slow-wave activity (0.5- 4Hz: delta activity) and a decrease in alpha activity (8-12 Hz) at temporal regions. Recently it has been suggested that this loss of alpha power ...


5

I found that dF/F0 stands for the relative difference in fluorescence at a certain wavelength.


5

From meta-analyses that include musical emotion inductions, there is not much evidence that we can reliably distinguish between emotions in the brain, independent of the emotion induction procedure or meta-analytical method (1 2 3 4 5). We might be able to distinguish emotions with specificity and reliability within an individual, but this kind of work is ...


4

Firstly, you wouldn't be directly controlling neurotransmitter. From the human perspective, you'd be controlling higher-level events (and they aren't necessarily describable on more than a phenomenological level). Of course, this would also lead to some changes in neurotransmitter release, but in a complex way: that's all handled at a lower level by the ...


4

You're describing Hypnagogia. There has been some research on the EEG states during hypnagogia: To identify more precisely the nature of the EEG state which accompanies imagery in the transition from wakefulness to sleep, Hori et al. proposed a scheme of 9 EEG stages defined by varying proportions of alpha (stages 1–3), suppressed waves of less than 20μV ...


4

Unfortunately not. The closest publication would be Lee et al 2016, which is a reconstruction of a network of functionally-characterised neurons in mouse V1. They state the data "will be available" at neurodata; currently only the EM dataset appears to be there, and not the correspondence with functional imaging. I encourage you to contact them for the data ...


4

For a broad meaning of "similarly", the answer is yes, the processing of sign language has substantial similarities with that of spoken language, in terms of brain areas involved. There are also some differences; the latter issue is a vast and still somewhat controversial research area; from the conclusion of a 2007 review: Where differences can ...


3

I will focus on question #1: Analysis of MRI scans is typically done using voxels (Fig. 1). Voxels have a volume defined by three dimensions (length, width and depth). Voxel analysis. Source: Philips The slice thickness plus the 2D in-plane resolution (pixel size) yields the voxel size. The time to scan a slice can be regarded to be negligible. Making a ...


3

2 2,752,000,000,000,000,000,000 states Disclaimer: This is obviously a very crude and imprecise estimation (in fact, it is ignoring some obvious parameters for the sake of simplicity). As Scott E. Page puts it: Even models that are far from accurate can teach us something. If one considers the design of future artificial brain, you can make these rough ...


3

By 3D image, I assume that you want a projection of the topographic map onto a 3D model of the head. For an accurate resolution, you would need to have acquired the position of the EEG channels on the head as well as the shape of the participant's head. However, this kind of data is not often acquired. The next best solution is to use an existing model of ...


3

Extensively. Most prominently, recently, by David Poeppel, Oded Ghitza and Anne-Lise Giraud, in a series of papers. They've, to be precise, mostly focused on MEG correlations with the filtered speech amplitude envelope. Areas around the auditory cortex track it fairly well it seems. There is still much debate about what this means and where it comes from, ...


3

Also FieldTrip for Matlab, and MNE for Python


3

Like lea's comment indicated, FA is called "fractional" anisotropy simply because it's the degree of anisotropic diffusion, i.e., a ratio (Soares, Marques, Alves and Sousa, 2013). Fractional Anisotropy is a normalized measure of the fraction of the tensor's magnitude due to anisotropic diffusion, corresponding to the degree of anisotropic diffusion or ...


3

T2 weighted MRI scans can reveal white matter lesions, so that may explain the detection of demyelination. Of course, that's not fMRI...


3

First at all, the connectome must be interpreted like a static picture of the brain. So anything related with plasticity and dynamical processes will be lost in this map. There are connectome at macroscopic areas using fNMR but I'm going to focus in the cellular level. We can define three types: Dense Connectome - It is the classical idea of connectome ...


3

See https://www.reddit.com/r/neuro/comments/5y4pta/does_anyone_know_where_i_can_find_a_repository_of/ for a similar question. Websites that were posted there include http://www.humanconnectome.org/data/, http://neurovault.org, http://www.ppmi-info.org, https://openfmri.org/, http://fcon_1000.projects.nitrc.org/indi/abide/ and http://radiopaedia.org. Some ...


3

The Mind of the Meditator may be what you are looking for: https://www.nature.com/scientificamerican/journal/v311/n5/full/scientificamerican1114-38.html The image taken from the article gives some good explanation:


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