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14

The key point is that the brain is not a uniform structure. The outer layer, known as grey matter, is a relatively uniform and flat structure. Underneath the grey matter is white matter. An overly-simple characterization of these two areas is that grey matter performs computations, and white matter lets different areas of grey matter talk to each other. Here'...


11

It's been known that Increased Corpus Callosum size was found in musicians who began music training before age 7 and that Training working memory leads to growth in Corpus Callosum. As for how to train working memory, that's a diverse subject. There have been a lot of experiments involving Training working memory for ADHD patients, however a meta-analysis ...


9

First of all, the human brain is distinctively larger than that of any other primate, mainly due to the great expansion of the cerebral cortex. The underlying structures have remained relatively stable (Toro et al., 2008). As the cortex overlies the rest of the brain, a solution had to be found, because the whole brain did not have to inflate to increase ...


9

Yes. The idea that the fusiform face area (FFA) is domain-selective for faces is the dominant hypothesis, but a competing hypothesis is that the FFA is recruited for fine discrimination in visual stimuli of any type in which we are experts. In a famous study, Gauthier et al. (1999) taught participants to categorize fictitious Greebles (see image below). ...


9

Association areas are exactly what you are looking for, actually. For example, the ventral intraparietal (VIP) cortex, located in the inferior parietal lobe (along the right border of the yellow area in the image below), just on the border of the occipital lobe, integrates somatosensory (tactile) and visual information. Image via Wikipedia For an ...


8

Much of the answer will depend on how you define multisensory. Are you most interested in areas of the brain where multiple primary sensory streams converge together to form secondary representations, or are you interested in areas of the brain that simply have access to that kind of information? I will throw in for consideration one of my favorite ...


8

I'll tackle this question from a functional point of view. Gray matter are cell bodies, white matter are myelinated fiber tracts. In the brain, the gray matter is basically the cortex, the white matter lies mainly underneath it. The Cortex is the place where all the higher mental processing takes place (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Cortical functions. Source: Penn ...


8

You are right that active adult neurogenesis is generally considered to be restricted to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The latter generates neurons that subsequently migrate through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to become interneurons (Ming & Song, 2011). Although the ...


7

Broca is generally considered the first person to localise structure to function, however, there are some earlier individuals to consider: EDIT: i recommend the chapter Neurolinguistics from the Middle Ages to the Pre-Modern Era: Historical Vignettes in: Stemmer, B. & Whittaker, H.A. (1998). Handbook of Neurolinguistics. Academic Press: London. it has ...


7

The corpus callosum is a massive horizontal white matter tract (commissure) that connects the two hemispheres and it is considered the most important route of communication between the hemispheres. However, there are five additional commissures that cross the midline, namely: Anterior commissure, connecting the two olfactory bulbs and the temporal ...


7

As often the case, named after the person who first described it. From Encyclopedia Britannica: Wernicke area, region of the brain that contains motor neurons involved in the comprehension of speech. This area was first described in 1874 by German neurologist Carl Wernicke.


6

No, not at all--or not necessarily; different sulci & gyri may be different shapes--this is one of the reasons why individual brains are transformed or normalized into standard space in group analysis of MRI data (see here for a good basic explanation of how & why this is done). In some cases canonical landmarks may be missing entirely--famously, an ...


6

What is the difference in the brains for animals capable of these great differences in sexual activity and what part of the brain is responsible for this? In my opinion is a matter of creativity and curiosity. Evolved species try to interact with their ambient in unusual ways, testing different approach to the same "problem" not only to satisfy primary ...


6

Phineas Gage had his famous spike through the head in 1848, which lead to some discoveries about the function of that area, but these were quite general. See: Harlow, J. M. (1869). Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Clapp. But, Broca appears to be the first to identify a specific area: In 1861, the French surgeon, Pierre Paul ...


6

As Wikipedia points out: Myelin is a lipid-rich (fatty) substance formed in the central nervous system (CNS) by glial cells called oligodendrocytes, and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) by Schwann cells. When referring to the sheath, you are referring to the covering which is made of myelin. Myelin sheaths are sleeves of fatty tissue that ...


5

My answer to this question would be pretty straightforward. From a neurobiological standpoint, sex causes the release of various pair-bonding influencing hormones oxytocin, vasopressin and dopamine. These "feel good" hormones promote bonding and basically encourage the couple to stay together. The more the pair have sex, the more these hormones get ...


5

First, biological features do not always arise from some intrinsic benefit. They can also be byproducts of other adaptations, or spandrels. That being said, one example of a possible benefit is specialization. For instance, birds will develop asymmetries in their visual system based on light inputs to their outward-facing eye (one eye faces the eggshell, ...


5

Vesicle count and spine morphology are two of the better-known predictors of synaptic strength. But they are not the whole story. Glia, like astrocytes can also modulate synaptic strength by releasing their own neurotransmitter or co-agonist, but you need more than just images to detect that process. There is also the matter of receptor distribution in ...


5

Interesting question! The paper you read should have inserted an appropriate citation. Moreover, "little input" is a subjective statement and doesn't make much sense in the context, as it can mean that there are few efferent axons (which may still have large effects on retinal functioning), or that the efferent input is relatively unimportant when compared ...


5

There have been many proposed explanations for the condition. The explanation which seems to have gained traction states that an individual with Capgras syndrome experiences a "disconnect" between the part of the brain that recognizes faces and the part of the brain that processes emotion. Thus, the person may see someone who looks like his brother, but does ...


5

The neural substrates most involved in retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) appear to be the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (VLPFC) (Bäuml, Pastötter and Hanslmayr, 2010). I will not pretend to one-up their concise summation of the evidence. The results are consistent ...


5

Biondi et al. (1998) compared MR images of monozygotic twins and found that while the brains of monozygotic twins are not identical, they are similar. Relevant for understanding the concordance rate of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins, Suddath et al. (1990) examined MR images of monozygotic twins who where discordant for schizophrenia. They found that the ...


5

Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? I think it's safe to say that neuroscience, as a field, would stand behind this statement from neurobiologist David Sweatt, in his excellent 2003 (1st edition...2nd is probably even more current) ...


5

Short answer In complicated matters like neural connections in a layered cortex, it is all about semantics. One should carefully place statements in their context and deduce their meaning. Background In Fig. 1 a schematic of the layering of the cortex is shown. The layers can be separated based on their histological and neurophysiological features: Layer ...


5

There is a physical connection. Synapses are held together by adhesion molecules, like cadherins and neuroligins/neurexins. Missler, M., Südhof, T. C., & Biederer, T. (2012). Synaptic cell adhesion. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, 4(4), a005694.


4

Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an extremely rare disorder. It is so rare, there appears to be no available prevalence studies. In the AHS literature, case studies are therefore nearly universal. For all intents and purposes, it is reasonable to say that AHS appears to be a disease so rare that the empirical prevalence rates are in every listed case ...


4

In the article you provided (Molofsky et al., 2014) the authors refer back to (Arber, 2012) and surprisingly, the term puncta is not used in the latter. So that's pretty much a dead end. I found another article (Ippolito & Eroglu, 2010) in which the authors do explicitly clarify their use of the word puncta. In this article, puncta is a term used in ...


4

You could start with Hochner's papers, like this one: Hochner, B., Shomrat, T., & Fiorito, G. (2006). The octopus: a model for a comparative analysis of the evolution of learning and memory mechanisms. The Biological Bulletin, 210(3), 308-317. http://www.biolbull.org/content/210/3/308.full As far as I know, he is a world expert.


4

There is no evidence that the CSF has a pump, especially not a spinal pump as suggested by Dr. Jockers in the previous (now deleted) answer. Dr. Jockers calls himself a "Maximized Living Doctor" but does not list his credentials. It is likely that he is a Doctor of Chiropractic; his references for the CSF pump article are dead ends: One is a dead link, two ...


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