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5 votes

What does it mean when we say that "a neuron connects to a certain cortical layer"?

Short answer In complicated matters like neural connections in a layered cortex, it is all about semantics. One should carefully place statements in their context and deduce their meaning. ...
AliceD's user avatar
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5 votes

Why are there receptors inside neural cells?

Why are they inside if the role of receptors is communication between cells? 'Receptors' are ubiquitous in biology and not just for communication between cells: they carry signals within cells, too. ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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4 votes

Is there a complete connectome of a minicolumn of the neocortex?

Unfortunately not. The closest publication would be Lee et al 2016, which is a reconstruction of a network of functionally-characterised neurons in mouse V1. They state the data "will be available" at ...
Dylan Richard Muir's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Can two neurons in the brain be connected more than once?

I guess the answer depends on what you mean with "connected more than once". Initially, being connected is a strictly binary relation: either two neurons are connected or not. (The question may be: ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
4 votes

Myelin and Myelin Sheath

As Wikipedia points out: Myelin is a lipid-rich (fatty) substance formed in the central nervous system (CNS) by glial cells called oligodendrocytes, and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) by ...
Chris Rogers's user avatar
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4 votes
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How synapses are hold in place if they're not phisically attached?

There is a physical connection. Synapses are held together by adhesion molecules, like cadherins and neuroligins/neurexins. Missler, M., S├╝dhof, T. C., & Biederer, T. (2012). Synaptic cell ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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4 votes
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What are higher-level and lower-level brain functions?

Tranel et al. (20003 gives a succinct definition of higher level brain functions in their chapter abstract: Higher brain functions are the operations of the brain that stand at the pinnacle of ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes

How many different synapses can an axon form? How do they differ?

You're right - from the simple math in the numbers you've given, you can deduce that each average neuron makes thousands of connections (sending and receiving). Of course, this varies a bit by cell ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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3 votes

How are ocular dominance columns monocular despite binocular complex cells?

Ocular dominance columns are not purely monocular, nor are simple cells purely monocular. Simple and complex cells both exhibit a range of ocular preference, from preferring one to the other. See ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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3 votes
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Is neuroplasticity limited to the cerebral cortex in the brain?

Short answer Subcortical structures can definitely show neuroplasticity in adults. Most likely, all brain structures can show plastic changes to some degree. Background The question is rather broad, ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes

Are the language and sound centres of the brain in the same area?

Short answer The primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in relatively simple processing of sound. The language areas involved in producing and understanding speech are associative auditory ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes

Are all dendrites targeted by an axon, or are there a lot of "empty" dendrites?

Short answer Axonal outputs are coupled to dendrites or other effector tissues, such as muscular fibers or glandular tissue. There are no redundant axonal outputs, or redundant dendritic inputs. There ...
AliceD's user avatar
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3 votes

Books on Neurological functions?

Any basic Neuroscience book would suffice, really. For example, a really good and widely used book is Principles of Neural Science from Kandel et al. I read it nearly from cover to cover, and it ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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What does 'Mean Diffusivity' tell me about the connectivity of cortical areas?

Short answer The mean diffusivity (MD) in diffusion tensor imaging is a sensitive, yet a rather non-specific measure. Changes in MD tell you that water movement is altered, yet why and how will have ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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Where can I find the connectivity matrix of the connectome of C. Elegans?

The full connectome of C. elegans (Fig. 1.) is described by Farber (2012) and as far as I know, the most complete data on C. elegans, including its connectome is available from the OpenWorm Project ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes

What are the effects of antipsychotic medication on brain volume?

Yes, there are different results published because it is an open research question. It is a tricky question to figure out due to substantial confounding factors so some results might skew for and some ...
researcher145212's user avatar
2 votes

Article for bypassing spinal cord after spinal cord injury

The most recent paper that was published is Bouton et al. (2016) in Nature, but is not openly available (though can be accessed via http://sci-hub.cc/ ). The abstract of the paper is as follows: ...
Robin Kramer-ten Have's user avatar
2 votes
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Direction of electrical information flow in the brain (and output locations)

As @AliceD pointed out in her comment, the concept of output of the brain is too broad. If you are interested in how eye movements are generated, I suggest you read about the frontal eye fields(FEF). ...
lucianopaz's user avatar
2 votes

Difference between the cingulate gyrus and the cingulate cortex

Short answer The cingulate gyrus and cingulate sulcus are the two components that make up the cingulate cortex. The cingulate cortex is involved in emotions, self-control, and problem solving. ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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How does the intravenous administration of cholecystokinin provoke panic attacks?

Emotions are often linked to chemical activity in the brain. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin , dopamine, norepinephrine etc are linked to inducing emotional states, therefore if you can take a ...
queenslug's user avatar
  • 2,416
2 votes

What is the proportion of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in the feline thalamus?

I found two articles: Madarasz et.al. (1985) GABA cells 27 % LGN 33 % Ventrobasal complex 25 % Antero-ventral nucleus Penny et.al. (1983) GAD-immuninoreactive neurons 30 % VentroPosterior ...
neototeles's user avatar
2 votes

What is the function of the connection between the two halves of the thalamus?

Short answer The function of the thalamic adhesion in humans is unknown. Background The two halves of the thalamus are separated by the third ventricle. In about 80% of people, the thalami are ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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Unilateral vision in split brain subjects

Short answer The corpus callosum is not necessary for low-level visual processing; Both eyes project to both hemispheres; the left visual hemifield of both eyes is projected to the left hemisphere, ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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Is the approximation of the Medial Frontal Gyrus in the region of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex?

No; the medial frontal gyrus is medial; it faces the sagittal midline of the brain. Medial is the opposite of lateral; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is lateral, facing towards the outside of the ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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2 votes
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Cingulate cortex vs Limbic lobe are they same or slightly different?

Updated answer: The limbic lobe (aka limbic cortex) is made up of the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus (so the cingulate gyrus is only part of the limbic lobe). The limbic lobe is part ...
PCS's user avatar
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2 votes
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Can two neurons stimulate each other?

We refer to neurons that are connected to each other as having a "reciprocal" connection (however, the term is also used to refer to regional reciprocal connections in addition to neuron-...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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2 votes

What is the cochlear frequency response by number of hair cells?

The basilar membrane of the cochlea has a logarithmic frequency distribution, at least for the better part, such that an equal space is occupied per octave from 1 kHz and onwards (Fig. 1). This means ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes
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Deflection of the basilar membrane

The wide, slack composition of the basilar membrane (BM) in the apex and the narrow, stiff characteristics at the base are among the factors that underlie the tuning of the BM. Slack, wide structures ...
AliceD's user avatar
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2 votes

How do the outer hair cells amplify the traveling wave?

Short answer Outer hair cells physically contract at a rate corresponding to the characteristic resonant frequency at which they are situated on the basilar membrane, thereby mechanically amplifying ...
AliceD's user avatar
  • 20.7k
2 votes

Research and theories related to the physical form of Cognitive Fallacies

This schematic broadly outlines the control processes involved in decision-making, relating to structures of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The bias you're referring to is an availability bias. I'm not ...
Malcolm Forbes's user avatar

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