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The easiest way to work forward from a well-cited article is to do a forward Google Search. My answer is almost completely based on such a search and concentrates on three brain regions: amygdala, insula cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex; note that all three regions are linked to emotion. Keep in mind: when you take any two groups of people that ...


7

[Edit]: Parts of this answer respond to removed content in older versions of the OP, and to comments. The current version of the OP deserves some elaboration of this answer. (And, IMHO, other answers too!) There are other spiritual "worlds" than those that are dualistic. By common psychological definitions of spirituality, the existence of an "...


6

In short, the question cannot be answered as-is. I will explain why, and then answer a broader question that you may find useful instead. Reverse Inference: As background, consider the common problem of reverse inference: Suppose we identify subjects with relatively low grey-matter volumes (GMV) in the left anterior insula (LAI). Can we conclude that ...


6

Moral Judgement: From Wikipedia: ... moral judgment ... is "the ability to reason correctly about what 'ought' to be done in a specific situation." Research on moral judgement was pioneered by Jean Piaget, summarized in his book "The Moral Judgment of the Child" (1932), in which he implies that moral development levels off in adolescence. Piaget ...


5

Kohlberg constucted his stages of moral development using a sample consisting of 72 boys from Chicago. The sample consisted of three age groups: 10, 13 and 16 years. This was also the start for a 30-year long lasting longitudinal study to test his theory (Colby, Kohlberg, Gibbs & Lieberman, 1983). The results generally support the theory. Younger ...


4

Although not the question you asked, there has been at least one study looking at the influence of 'cave-like environments' on cognition - people are more prone to magical thinking/illogical beliefs (not their term) when placed in a dark, windowless environment. Rigoli et al (2013): Cave-like Environments Facilitate Magical Thinking Abstract The cognitive ...


4

[Just addressing your title question:] supposedly so, but there isn't a lot of data on this. One of David Buss' students has this in his PhD thesis: participants from the Austin community completed a survey instrument that asked a series of questions about their most memorable fantasy of killing someone else. Seventy-six percent of women and 91 ...


4

This may not totally match your description (the person's worldview, the evilness of the viewed objects), but it's quite analogous to the table of style of attachment, so I put it here. I do notice that the major topic in the attachment theory is about relationship, while the topics in your description seem to be about moral in general, but I suspect that ...


3

The two problems might seem to be equivalent but they aren't - in the "John" scenario those advocating not to arrest John and harvest his delicious organs are pointing out that: that John should decide whether to sacrifice for the benefit of the other patients. This is showing that the problems aren't equivalent because John has a choice to sacrifice ...


3

There is a clear definition of what a personality disorder is. The Wikipedia article on Personality Disorders lists the criteria given in the DSM-5 and ICD-10. Take a look: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_disorder If you don't understand those definitions, please edit your question accordingly.


3

This is an interesting question which seems that even the experts are still investigating it to a degree. Take a look at the links I provide in this answer and look at the conformity studies like the Milgram Experiment and the works of Dr Phil Zimbardo with his Stanford Prison Experiment and his book on The Lucifer Effect (a study of the Psychology of Evil ...


3

There is a famous Ted talk on the topic of fairness, by Frans de Waal. It does not really address the question of whether the moral of fairness is universal across all species, but makes a very interesting case that fairness might be "universal" across primates at least: http://www.ted.com/talks/frans_de_waal_do_animals_have_morals.html


2

what about Kay, S. R.: 1982, ‘Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development: Critical Analysis of Validation Studies with the Defining Issues Test’, International Journal of Psychology 17, 27–42. Abstract This paper evaluates studies that have used the Defining Issues Test for validating Kohlberg's theory of moral stage development. Although this test was ...


2

There was a recent paper in PNAS (Marsh et al., 2014) that examined "extraordinary altruists" who volunteered to donate a kidney to a stranger. As opposed to psychopaths, who tend to show diminished sensitivity to threatening faces, altruists (vs. healthy controls) showed heightened sensitivity to these faces, which was associated with greater activity and ...


2

To some extent, I agree with you that there is probably more done on the extreme negative end of morality, partly because that (debatably) is seen as more abnormal and society is more interested in fixing it. There has been considerable work on psychopathy and sociopathy, which means that cognitive neuroscience is more willing to treat such people as special ...


2

It really depends on your theory. If you can write measurement of morality in google scholar you would find many morality theories and attempts to measure it such as (Ziv, 1976). Most theories, as far as I know, use stories and evaluate children's responces to those theories. I'm not aware of any scale to measure moral development. By the way, one of the ...


2

Since I vaguely remember a similar question not that long ago, let me use this one to quote from one the few peer-reviewed papers (doi link; preprint pdf). that discusses the notion of "mind control": Mind control is a common plot device in many genres of fiction. Its ubiquity is perhaps unsurprising: the prospect of the explicit, full control of the ...


2

A personality flaw can be a trait or behaviour that is conscious and the person usually has control over it, whereas a personality disorder is a long enduring pattern of defensive behavior that lies outside of the persons control, because they are not are not aware of it. A person with Borderline Personality Disorder will use splitting and projection to ...


2

Psychologically, guilt can be described as "a feeling of responsibility or remorse for some offense, crime, wrong, etc., whether real or imagined" (Dictionary.com). Guilt is an emotion triggered by a belief that you did something wrong, based on what you think is wrong. You can feel guilty after breaking your New year resolution. You can also feel guilty ...


1

It almost seems like a two-valued judgment, where you either have the trait or don't, but the context seems to matter. Someone may perform irredeemably evil acts, yet go home to their family with whom they have a genuine concern for their wellbeing. Especially when talking about the issue using the construct of psychopathy where: By foregrounding intrinsic ...


1

Kent Kiehl's work may be the closest means of determining this. According to an interview, he states "psychopaths have 5 to 10 percent reduced gray matter density in and around the limbic regions [a network deep in the brain that's important for emotional processing]." If his source(s) can be examined for 1. what percent of psychopaths exhibit such reduced ...


1

This is a very interesting question. I think that there are many both conscious and unconscious factors that determine destructive behavior. The conflict between the id and super-ego (mediated by ego) can, at some level, be understood as a conflict between needs and social norms. Murder seems to be universally accepted as "bad behavior" so it must be coded ...


1

That can't be answered with one particular stage because: Another criticism of Kohlberg’s theory is that people frequently demonstrate significant inconsistency in their moral judgements.[26] This often occurs in moral dilemmas involving drinking and driving and business situations where participants have been shown to reason at a subpar stage, typically ...


1

If I were to guess, the reason is probably something to the effect of: because children would not understand since they lack the same (or same level of) sexual urges that adults have. Another thought that comes to mind is maybe parents are afraid (or even ashamed) of their children seeing them (the parents) acting essentially like non-human animals. Sexual ...


1

I am a research psychologist working with moral foundations theory and messaging and I haven't seen these particular questions addressed. But you maybe interested to see work that uses different framed messages with these 'trigger words' in different populations (e.g., by political orientation) and measures outcomes, e.g., The Moral Roots of Environmental ...


1

Yes and no. As organisms in environment emotions could be defined as our bodies reaction to our environment so yes if your environment changes then of course your emotions will change. So there's that. However if you're asking what I think you're asking which is for some sort of explanation for the observed changes in your behaviour that have been caused by ...


1

I don't know of direct research on these exact beliefs, but since you've asked, I'll offer some indirect theoretical support for a positive correlation hypothesis. First, I'll reframe your belief constructs in terms of known and studied phenomena. 1) Everyone has to take care of himself; it's not mandatory for people to be nice and good, it's mandatory to ...


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