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6

First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable of conducting electricity at zero Kelvin. Many elements and compounds become metallic under high pressures, for instance iodine. Reversely, the metal sodium ...


5

This is called procedural memory. In textbooks, memory is often broken down into a hierarchy of types. Note that this taxonomy is primarily a guide to language use - ie, how types of memory are labelled or referred to, not how memory is actually organised in the brain. In standard hierarchies, recalling a mathematical formula would fall under semantic ...


5

Maybe what you are looking for is the field cognitive science of religion: Cognitive science of religion is the study of religious thought and behavior from the perspective of the cognitive and evolutionary sciences. The field employs methods and theories from a very broad range of disciplines, including: cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, ...


3

Quibbling about other types of LTP (not mediated by NDMA receptors) aside, this is a good question, with a rather intricate answer. Basically (NDMAR mediated) LTP is not merely activated by calcium, but rather by CaMKII, which essentially acts a sort longer-term chemical memory for calcium that was once "detected" in a spine. A couple of points quoted from ...


3

This question can be addressed in many ways. One approach that we have taken is to test memory for what has just recently happened a few seconds ago. In these experiments we ask people to find a target in a simple visual search, and report its location. For example we might show them 3 numbers and one letter and ask them to report the location of the ...


3

There is still much that is not completely understood about the process of memory and forgetfulness, and the following is what I have been able to find out. It is understoood that physiologically, the establishment of long-term memory involves a process of physical changes in the structure of neurons (or nerve cells) and their synapses in the brain, through ...


2

This is a fairly open-ended question... One example of the potentially negative consequences of overexpressed BDNF is its effect on the likelihood and frequency of epileptic seizures. I guess the short version of this effect is that BDNF appears to promote neuronal growth, including neurogenesis, axonal and synaptic sprouting, and neuronal excitation, in ...


2

There isn't a name (that I am aware of at least) for a person who has this experience, but the concept is referred to as negativity bias. Negativity bias is a general phenomenon, though certainly individuals can vary as to how strongly they are influenced by negative rather than positive events/information.


2

recognize familiar faces The distinction between familiar and unfamiliar faces with the prosopagnosia seems to be more a wiki thing than in clinical or common usage. The defintion does not seem fixed. NINDs defines it as "characterized by the inability to recognize faces" rather than only just familiar faces. So sufferers "use other ways to identify people, ...


2

With little to go on, your questions are difficult to answer specifically but I'll give the general guidance I can. 1) Calcium signals in neurons are typically brief. "Calcium transient" is a synonym for "brief calcium signal." Someone could contrast between types of calcium transients in terms of their source (external calcium vs. internal stores), ...


2

I don't know the answer to your question but I'm not aware of anyone who does. The paper referred to in the first article above is Bartol et al. (2015) in eLife (https://cdn.elifesciences.org/articles/10778/elife-10778-v2.pdf). This paper is a proposal of how one might estimate the storage capacity of a synapse. Their current estimate is 4.7 bits per ...


2

The original paper describing Patient HM is available online, and makes for fascinating reading: Scoville, W. B., Milner, B. 1957. Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1957 Feb; 20(1): 11–21. (Direct PDF) From page 14: This patient has even eaten luncheon in front of one of us (B.M.) without being ...


1

From the BBC article, there's a prediction about that: Perhaps, when we’re very young, the hippocampus simply isn’t developed enough to build a rich memory of an event. Baby rats, monkeys and humans all continue to add new neurons to the hippocampus for the first few years of life and we all are all unable to form lasting memories as infants – and it ...


1

I think you can use this graphic: It is taken from an article from WIRED, Want to Remember Everything You'll Ever Learn? Surrender to This Algorithm. It talks about Piotr Wozniak and his spaced repetition software SuperMemo.


1

Well, regarding this short definition of a connectome from Wiki: A connectome (/kəˈnɛktoʊm/) is a comprehensive map of neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system. Therefore you could read out all ...


1

The reason you instinctively feel that a walk in the woods is better than TV may be partially related to the schemas you've developed around both activities. You get the feeling that talking a walk is a more "intellectual" activity than TV because that's you expectation based on what you've heard, and your experiences of TV being a lazy activity for pleasure,...


1

There does not seem to be any research on your exact question on: the effect of "low attention tasks" and "high attention tasks" on the comprehension and memory of speech modality learning. However, if we widen the scope of the question to different modalities of learning like reading, then there is ample research. However, most of the research seems to ...


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