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From what I remember, the MBTI has been compared in some studies to the Big Five (or OCEAN) model of personality. If you've not heard of it, the Big Five is the primary theory of personality that is accepted by researchers who do this sort of thing. Here are some papers comparing the two approaches: Recent comparison and another. The main point is that a ...


15

There is no better way to describe brain activity than brain waves! :) There are newer ways to analyze and think about brain waves, though. Usually you will find these under literature on neuronal oscillations. Good aspects of thinking about brain activity using brain waves: Brain waves are directly related to neural activity. They are an electric or ...


14

Preface This is a very interesting question, that is also somewhat related to my area of research. I know of several related results (which I might add later in an edit), and I thought that with a few minutes of scholar search I'll find a paper dealing with this question exactly. I was surprised to find no such papers. So I decided to conduct an experiment.....


14

As part of my PhD within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), one of the things I am trying to support the user in is multitasking. This might be relevant for you since interruptions and multitasking are highly interlinked. I'll refer you to some of the key papers I encountered during my background research, including some on the effects of ...


13

The Hare Psychopathology Checklist is considered the current gold standard for measuring potential psychopathy. If you're interested in psychopathology, the book Without Conscience by Robert Hare, Ph.D., is a fascinating read. He has a second book called Snakes In Suits, which I have not yet read, so I cannot recommend or not recommend it. Dr. Hare has a ...


13

One way to measure love is to look at behaviors that people engage in to express love. Chapman (1995) theorized that there were five broad classes of behaviors that people would engage in to express love: (1) words of affirmation, (2) spending quality time, (3) giving gifts, (4) acts of service, and (5) physical touch. Goff, Goddard, Pointer, and Jackson ...


12

Yes and no. Source estimation has been utilized in electrical engineering for decades, but is becoming more and more prevalent in the EEG realm, especially in light of efforts to register EEG readings with concurrent fMRI studies. Basically, given a set of EEG (or even MEG, magnetoencephalographic) measurements, can we "invert" them to find the individual ...


12

Digman (1997) performed higher order factor analysis on several Big 5 intercorrelation matrices and proposed that the Big 5 could be partially explained in terms of two higher order factors: Alpha (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability) and Beta (Extraversion, Openness). Musek (2007) presented evidence for a Big 1 factor of personality. ...


12

Literal IQ: In a literal sense, IQ is a standardised score derived from intelligence tests. Typically IQ is scaled to have a a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. In that sense, it is a normative score. For children, the norm is defined relative to other children of a similar age, for adults, it is defined relative to an adult population. IQ as g: ...


12

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise in ...


12

Antoine Tremblay has just released an advanced analysis toolbox: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/psyp.12299/abstract It's missing about half the features on your list, although fundamentally, spectral density is a simple task and LORETA is a stand-alone package anyways (although similar approaches, e.g. general CSD estimation, are implemented in ...


12

As a slight modification of your statement: blood flow increases wherever activity in the brain increases. The type of fMRI that uses this principle is blood-oxygenation-level-dependent fMRI or BOLD fMRI. MRI in general detects signals by picking up proton signals from water molecules. This proton signal is basically caused by magnetizing the protons ...


12

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


11

What you may be interested are personality traits caught by some statistical correlations, rather than 'manually' merged by an author's intuition. One of such tools is 16 Personality Factors. The 16 Personality Factors, measured by the 16PF Questionnaire, were derived using factor-analysis by psychologist Raymond Cattell. This article summarizes the ...


11

The basic approach that you are describing sounds like inverse efficiency scores (e.g., see Townsend and Ashby, 1978,1983), which are measured as $$\frac{r}{1-e} = \frac{r}{c}$$ where $r$ is reaction time, $e$ is proportion error, and $c$ is proportion correct. John Christie provides a critique of inverse efficiency scores here or see the discussion in ...


10

There are many, many more neuromodulators in the brain than that. Essentially anything that binds to G-protein coupled receptors could be considered a neuromodulator. Even "classic" fast neurotransmitters like GABA and glutamate have "neuromodulatory" receptors (GABA-B receptors for GABA, 3 different families of "metabotropic glutamate receptors"). ...


10

Steven J. Luck's "An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique" is a great beginner's book on EEG. It's basic but not too simple, and it goes into the structure of the signals as well as into issues on experimental design.


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There a are globally two perspectives the discrete perspective uses a categorization system. There are many different systems, with more or less core emotions and sub-emotions. As the one shown in your post. the dimensional perspective considers one, mainly two, sometimes more, scales to identify an emotional value. Valence (happy/sad) and arousal (sleepy/...


10

To add some general theoretical background... Answering this is very complicated because the answer depends on how you define emotions, whether you see emotions as latent or emergent, whether you recognize high heterogeneity (behavior, cognition, physiology) within emotion categories, whether you view emotions as circumscribed in the brain or emerging from ...


9

Do personality tests predict job performance in general? There is a large academic literature correlating personality test scores with job performance. You might want to check out the meta-analysis by Barrick et al (2001). It reports the meta-analytic correlations often based on hundreds of studies between Big 5 personality test scores and job performance. ...


9

Answer based on your original depression example Note that this answer was originally written based on your initial example, where you asked: Assume, I have developed a new intervention for people with light depression. I want to compare the effectiveness of this intervention (E) with an existing intervention (C). For this, I recruit test subjects ...


8

The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is often used to assess psychopathy in clinical settings. NPR has a good, but unscientific read that ponders the validity of the Hare test and its reliability in predicting criminal recidivism. The online Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale is a test of psychopathy for research situations. References Hare, R. D. (2003)...


8

If you come to this question from the bayesian tradition, then there is only one place where you can sneak in bias: your prior. This dovetails nicely with the wikipedia definition: a pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations, leading to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly ...


8

Bias can be quantified in many different ways. In human memory research carried out in the cognitive psychology tradition, there are simple ways to think about it. One basic measure of cognitive bias is merely called bias, and it's a measure of the absolute accuracy of an individual's probability judgments. You average probability judgments across a given ...


8

The MBTI is based on Carl Jung's work with psychological types. However, Jung's work led to the formation of analytic psychology. This work is often associated with clinical observations and anecdotes instead of controlled scientific study. This means that Jung didn't carry out research that can be considered conclusive and scientifically validated. However, ...


8

I don't know of any well-validated general short scales. Here are a few thoughts: A major distinction is between self-report versus ability based measures. Self-report measures will ask the participant to rate their knowledge, skills, and experience. Ability based measures will require demonstration of competence. If you are limited to "self-measures", ...


8

What's answer above summarises many of the first things I would have said. In addition, you may also want to note that working memory references the idea of a computer, which implies that storage and processing are separable. In fact, storage and processing occur using the same mechanisms in the brain, meaning that a simple concept of working memory is ...


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