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14

Firstly realize that Sapir-Whorf was proven wrong in the strong sense, but is accepted in the weak sense. I don't think there's really any doubt now that learning new symbols and languages, or just enhancing your vocabulary in one language, influences thought. Many mathematicians are especially proud of how accurately proofs communicate, and having gained ...


11

I've studied this a little bit within the context of timing responses to personality test items. General models of reading speed look at both the time to read the words as well as to comprehend. From memory, eye tracking studies have shown how the eyes will often back track to confusing parts of a sentence (apologies for lack of reference). Some general ...


10

What explains the tendency of people to not count the letter F's in the word "OF"? One possibility to explain this effect is related to the phenomenon of word skipping. When we read, we do not fixate every word, but skip a certain proportion of words while making educated guesses instead. Whether or not a certain word is skipped seems to depend on its ...


7

If you really wanted to know you could use models of reading behaviour - e.g. EZ-Reader or Swift. The Rayner reviews are the classic go-to to outlne this kind of thing: Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006) (Vol. 62, pp. 1457-506). It will ...


6

Motherese may play a role in emotional development. Soken and Pick write: "Concurrent with the exaggerated speech of motherese, there are probably exaggerated facial displays, allowing infants to explore the particular aspects of the face... Child-centered displays may serve as opportunities for learning about affective events." Walker-Andrews (1997) also ...


6

This paper was written in 2010: Perceptual shift in bilingualism: brain potentials reveal plasticity in pre-attentive colour perception. In this paper, we test whether in Greek speakers exposure to a new cultural environment (UK) with contrasting colour terminology from their native language affects early perceptual processing as indexed by an ...


6

Sounds like what you're describing is "semantic satiation". Wikipedia explains: The explanation for the phenomenon was that verbal repetition repeatedly aroused a specific neural pattern in the cortex which corresponds to the meaning of the word. Rapid repetition causes both the peripheral sensorimotor activity and the central neural activation to fire ...


6

NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming) is a pseudoscience at worst, and not a science, but "an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy" at best. There is little scientific research, and no reliable scientific findings, supporting the effectiveness of NLP, and the evidence is probably best interpreted as speaking against the ...


5

Difficulties with language is not actually a symptom of autism. Autism Spectrum Disorder involves difficulties in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive interests or behaviours (DSM-V, 2013). The term "social communication" is referring to difficulties in the social aspects of language and other communication, such as ...


5

We were looking for an EEG device few years ago. The commercial offers were between 20,000 EUR for a 32 passive electrode to 50,000 EUR for an 64/128 active electrode. This included everything except the computers - some offers were without off-line data processing software. I never considered the EEG systems that were not mentioned in the method section of ...


5

The two legs upon which speed reading rests, in short, are chunking and seeking. Chunking is reading multiple words at once, while seeking allows you to find those chunks quickly and efficiently. The first exercise below will solve your subvocalization problems, but I recommend doing both in order to read text more effectively. You'll need: A computer with ...


5

I believe motherese exists to teach the infant to discriminate phonemes in the native language. Kuhl et al. (2005) show that during the first year language critical period, infants gain an increased ability to discriminate between phonemes of the native language, while their ability to discriminate between phonemes of non-native languages declines. ...


4

Fonagy and Target, although they do not specifically cite the term 'Motherese', believe that what they call 'Marking'- signalling an unreality or playfulness in mirrored displays of affect can play a crucial role in the development of a faculty they call 'Mentalization'. According to their model, newborns experience affect as all-pervading, and do not see ...


3

It seems to me that it'd be a type of a tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon caused by bilingualism. If you don't use German regularly, it might be attributed to language attrition, but this seems unlikely if you're still being exposed to German more than English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tip-of-the-tongue_phenomenon#Effects_of_bilingualism


3

An old question, but there has been some recent developments by third-parties and now cheaper and hopefully just-as-accurate EEGs exist. From Are recent affordable EEG devices any good? we see the Emotiv System and a paper that can attest to its accuracy. We also have OpenBCI, an open-source EEG catered to makers, which has recently been funded ...


3

I just had a project where I had to figure this out. I found that a good rule of thumb was the following: $$timeToRead = 1300 + (chars * 65);$$ So that's an initial time of 1300ms to adjust to what you need to be reading and about 65ms per character including spaces.


3

Here's an article talking about exactly what you are asking: EEG decoding of spoken words in bilingual listeners: from words to language invariant semantic-conceptual representations I can say that the brain obviously has the ability to invariantly represent different stimuli as being the same abstract concept, not even from stimuli in the same domain (such ...


3

Anecdotally speaking yes, I moved to another country where I couldn't practice my native one and after some years I started thinking in the once foreign one. I am now back to my original country and the process is playing out in reverse with some interesting quirks, I translate words rather than retrieve the original ones, something that at one point I did ...


2

One option is to use Inquisit Web Edition. Here is an example script with a lexical decision task. Unfortunately, it is not free and it requires installation of a plug-in. Version 4 of Inquisit runs on OSX and Windows. Thus, it wont work in Linux or on phones, tablets, etc.


2

Some cognitive scientists I heard are clear about benefits of being bilingual as exposed by @Damien or here - http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/science/31conversation.html?_r=0. They also do not hide the associated cognitive costs especially at a young age. I found the following presentation very interesting http://bilingualism.bangor.ac.uk/seminars/...


2

There appear to be more than your two basic problems: see Wikipedia's list of characteristics. Subjective difficulty in producing speech appears to be one particularly plausible reason to self-initiate treatment. I don't see any indication of a lack of concern for how speech is received by others. Some forms seem to be progressive, but not all are: ...


2

To measure the frequencies of different patterns (do some patterns occur more frequently that others based on group) I see this as a chi-squared test of independence. If you are unfamiliar with the test, a quick example is here. For your situation, all participants would get the same placements of dots, and you would count how often each possible pattern is ...


2

A bit of a broad question as a full answer will really depend on the specifics of the problem being addressed. In short though, yes, cultural factors, and probably to some extent linguistic factors as well, do impact on problem solving processes. One of the main cross-cultural factors that can alter problem solving is the whole individualism/collectivism ...


2

What is Autism? Psychologists, psychoanalysts and neuroscientists all commonly apply a triune model of the brain : The Reptilian complex (aka “instinct” aka “the Id”) : where primitive subconscious emotions (such as sadness, anger, fear and happiness) reside and which is correlated to primitive neurochemical algorithms that measure one’s capacity to take ...


2

Are there any good experiments on the phenomenon of processing inverted text? This is probably the place to start: Poldrack, Russell A., et al. "The neural basis of visual skill learning: an fMRI study of mirror reading." Cerebral Cortex 8.1 (1998): 1-10. APA What are the underlying mechanisms hypothesized by the quoted papers in processing such text? ...


2

The answer would be no. To go along with the comments babies feel emotions however do not know words. As they grow adults help them organize their emotions for example a baby cries with frustration and anger because they may be hungry as you get older you have learned how to deal with that experience. As it is impossible to feel any emotion without having a ...


2

First off, the difficulty in the specific example given in the question is more a matter of proper writing habits than anything else. The use of parentheses is often discouraged because it disrupts sentence structure and therefore interferes with the flow of information. Secondly, the use of referring words (pronouns) to earlier parts of the sentence are ...


2

The origin of language may be as much structural as cerebral. I think the key words are larynx and hyoid bone. I included a link below, but you should really compare several sources, because there are a lot of details, and science's understanding of human evolution is constantly evolving itself. For example, there's genetic evidence that all living humans ...


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