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There is a substantial literature on eye tracking. Skill acquisition example One study that I am familiar with and is of some relevance is Study 2 in Lee and Anderson (2000, PDF). Specifically the study used eye tracking tools to examine how visual attention was allocated over time on an air traffic control simulator. The broad finding, consistent with ...


7

The answer is more involved than it seems. Expertise research programmes, including Ericsson's line, has tended to blend quantitative and qualitative research methods (e.g., case studies, talk-aloud protocol, etc.), and there is a veritable host of critiques and qualifications that apply. For the scope of this answer, I will therefore try to err on the side ...


4

I imagine there are many ways of looking at this question. Here are just a few ideas: Society and specialisation: One lens for viewing this question is to focus on the reward structure of our society. There are many forces in society which encourage specialisation and the development of specific expertise. Careers are typically built around developing ...


2

Sure. I'll update this answer as I come across more papers, but here: Alves, H., Voss, M. W., Boot, W. R., Deslandes, A., Cossich, V., Salles, J. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2013). Perceptual-Cognitive Expertise in Elite Volleyball Players. Frontiers in Psychology Front. Psychol., 4. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00036 The goal of the current study was to ...


2

My causal impression is that the literature on deliberate practice is a little vague about how deliberate practice differs from other forms of practice. I think it was Ericcson who distinguished between work, play, and deliberate practice. Work is to get something done, play is for enjoyment, and deliberate practice is activity completed with the goal of ...


2

Ericsson doesn't emphasize on the precise number of hours needed to be a world-level expert. What he emphasizes is the importance of deliberate practice in gaining expertise. BTW, Macnamara et al.'s meta-analytic research has some severe weaknesses. For example, Not representative : They categorized the previous researches into 5 domains -- sports, games, ...


2

Karl Ericsson, on whose work Malcolm Gladwell based much of his popular Outliers, has expressed on a number of occasions that the optimal amount of practice time a day is around 3-5 hours, depending on domain. There is a great deal of research in the expertise literature, but Ericsson, Krampe, Tesch-Römer (1993) is a seminal (if not uncontroversial) paper ...


1

The phenomenon may be explained like this : The programmer was given the task to fix a bug on a complicated legacy code he does not understand. The programmer forms a subgoal "Refactor the code", in order to achieve the above goal. In the process of achieveing the subgoal "Refactor the code", he understands what needs to be done to fix the bug. So the ...


1

It seems like your question is tapping into a number of different questions. First, you might ask about what causes people to perceive expertise in others verus what causes people to perceive expertise in themselves. Second, there is the question of when are expertise perceptions inflated and if so what individuals are prone to this and what tasks are more ...


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