# Tag Info

## Hot answers tagged experiment-design

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If your experiment is preselecting and assigning participants non-randomly, such as using sex as the main factor to partition participant groups and responses, then yes it is quasi-experimental design. If the participant partitioning is random then this is not a quasi-experimental. However many studies may investigate sex differences as part of an ...

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Almost every pair of theories on that list sets up a false dichotomy. It is not an issue of one theory over another; at issue is how much different explanations apply to different circumstances. There is at least some evidence for each possibility that is not explained away by the other. Resolving these dichotomies in favor of one theory or the other is ...

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When your goals is to measure one option over the other As part of a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) study I also needed to measure cognitive load in order to assess whether a particular user interface could reduce perceived cognitive load (as compared to a control group). Because of practical reasons (and not to intrude too much in 'ordinary' computer ...

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I do have to note this question is broad and opinion based, according to the stack conventions. Nonetheless, I think it's an important question, given that scientific publications may alter the behavior of people en mass and even generate entire movements that, e.g., argue and campaign against vital medical interventions. A notorious example being the ...

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Short answer In psychophysical tests, often %correct rates are determined. Hence, training effects are often measured by determining correct rates. The ultimate outcome measures can be wildly variable, as they are dependent on the physical characteristics of the stimulus (visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory etc). Background Learning curves can be measured ...

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Short answer Attention can be quantified with a sustained attention to response task. Background I think with focus or concentration you mean sustained attention to a certain task. A sustained attention to response task (SART) (Silverstein & Palumbo, 1998) could be helpful to you (here is a free PsychoPy script). SART seems to be a reliable measure for ...

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The distinction between experiment and quasi-experiment is often made in undergraduate psychology courses. In general, the term quasi-experiment is used to identify studies that fall short of a controlled experiment in some respect: e.g., pre-existing groups; allocation of participants to groups in a non-random way. In some cases, repeated measures ...

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Ethical procedures are specific to your country and even differ between universities and sometimes even per department. Of course you know everything about the Declaration of Helsinki, being immersed in the city of its origins (you seem to (have) be(en) affiliated to the University of Helsinki). You seem to be located in NY now, but I'm unsure to your ...

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Yes, a norming experiment is an experiment looking to establish what (if any) is the perceptual norm for a given stimulus, i.e. the level of the stimulus that appears neutral. In the paper you referenced, the stimuli are the size(s) of various objects, and the subjects were instructed to pick for each object a size that appeared neither too big nor too small,...

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Let us see first what it is not: Not a within subjects design. To be an within subjects experiment, you need a repeated measure, something that you would test for each individual multiple times. E.g.: In this experiment, subjects diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder were each tested on a delay of gratification task after receiving ...

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Short answer Giving subjects feedback may affect their performance over time because of learning effects. The choice of giving feedback may be far less trivial than subjects getting bored yes or no. And quite frankly, subjects will get bored after a 100 trials, let alone 500, feedback or no feedback... Background You have to be aware that subjects can show ...

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I would call it a pre-post quasi-experiment, albeit where you are assessing the intervention in two different pre-existing groups. In terms of assessing the effect of the intervention, there are more threats to causal inference, when you don't have a control group (i.e., one where you have pre and post measures but with no intervention or a control ...

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If you have single-trial data, the drift-diffusion model/DDM and related models, originating with Roger Ratcliff (1976/1978), can simultaneously fit the whole response distribution, both RTs and accuracies. It captures phenomena such that in some experiments, errors are systematically faster or slower than correct responses. Fitting and interpreting the DDM ...

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Physiology is a very broad term that includes neuroscience: Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. Within the cognitive sciences, physiology typically refers to non-behavioral inputs and outputs of the nervous system (including parts of the brain), but physiological measures may include ...

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The Dark Triad maybe what you are seeking. You have described the behaviours as "malicious", where as the Dark Triad uses the word "malevolent". The Oxford Dictionary advises that these two words are synonyms. Reference Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A Brief Measure of Dark Personality ...

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The first paper I found searching for "advantages of quasi-experimental design" was this one: Schweizer, M. L., Braun, B. I., & Milstone, A. M. (2016). Research methods in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship—quasi-experimental designs. Infection control & hospital epidemiology, 37(10), 1135-1140. Most of the benefits are pragmatic:...

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If I understand your description correctly, you have one within-subject factor with two levels (certain/uncertain) and one between-subject factor (based on how you assign the different text snippets to different group, but I'm not sure I understand what exactly you are doing there). So, this would be a repeated-measures design with different groups (based on ...

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I'm imagining a system that chooses the computer's response not in a stochastic manner, but chaotically. Suppose you have some chaotic mapping function from the [0,1] interval to the {heads, tails} set. Choosing any real number in the set will get you some deterministic mapping to heads or tails. This mapping equation should be quite complex, but made ...

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Short answer Sensory systems in general operate on a relative basis. Hence, seemingly objective rating scales are often still relative, because subjects implicitly, or explicitly compare previous trials to the current one. Perception is per definition always relative. So numeric ratings are similar to ''larger than'', or ''smaller than'' ratings. The ...

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I find that it is the signal strength of the second signal that more so determines correct detection (0,1) The ideal unbiased observer bases the decision on $X1-X2$ while it sounds like your subjects are basing their decision on $aX1-X2$ where $a < 1$. While it is suboptimal, it is not a big deal. The fact that you know it means either report it or train ...

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Short answer Based on the experimental restrictions provided in the question and comments, my best bet would be to include 6 catch trials and to randomly present them from trial 6 and onward. Trials 1 & 2 are reserved for training purposes, trials 3 - 5 I would reserve for above-threshold stimuli. Background First a problem breakdown as I understand it ...

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While the sensation of color is well defined, the perception of color is indeed shrouded in ambiguity (Brainard, 2001). There are no colors, just electromagnetic radiations that oscillate in different frequencies in the frequency domain. Our brains interpret those various wavelengths as color. Now on to your experiment: if you find a statistical difference ...

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It depends on what you care to investigate. Do you care what happens when one person gets two hard questions as compared to someone who gets two easy ones? If so, record it for analysis. If not, control for it by ensuring that each participant receives the same number of easy and difficult problems. Do you care if there are ordering effects? If so, record ...

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Since the data show a two-way dependence (low A -> low B, hi A -> hi B and the reverse) this would prove the variables are not independent, as Linearly independent, orthogonal, and uncorrelated are three terms used to indicate lack of relationship between variables. Reference - Rodgers et al., The American Statistician (1984); 38(2): 133-4

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The word Empirical means (emphasis mine): Based on, concerned with, or verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. (Oxford English Dictionary) relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory — an empirical basis for the theory — and capable of being verified or disproved by observation ...

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"Malicious behavior" is not a term with a specific definition in psychology; if you search Google Scholar for "malicious behavior" + psychology you receive relatively few results and I see no evidence that those papers are using it as a term, rather they use it as a description, that is, the words are used simply in the context of their meaning in English. ...

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Here is a scale on benign and malicious envy. It isn't exactly what you want, but it may contain some citations that are of interest you. I believe they also mention the dark triad, which @Tony Mobbs suggested. Both are worth a look at least. I think the scale is on OSF (osf.io) if you can't access the paper. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/...

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A target is: A stimulus that a research participant or subject is searching for or trying to concentrate on, and that in research is often accompanied by distractors. And a foil is: In research methodology, another name for a distractor. For example, in a multiple choice question, the correct answer is the "target", and the rest are "foils" or ...

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