# Tag Info

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### Are brain waves electromagnetic waves?

Short answer Brain waves are not electromagnetic waves. Long answer Measured brain activity, as you already mentioned, is the result of individual neurons firing. The activity exists, in fact, of two ...
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### Is there a way to make a DIY EEG?

The OpenEEG project has some information for building your own EEG system. Instructables has a "simple" EEG circuit you can build. Note that this is going to be somewhat costly and time consuming ...
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### Are brain waves electromagnetic waves?

Short answer Brainwaves are typically associated with the electroencephalogram, which is a signal mainly composed of potential differences generated in the superficial layers of the brain. Potential ...
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### Are brain waves electromagnetic waves?

If "brain waves" produce a time-varying electric potential as shown on the EEG, then as far as I know electromagnetic waves are present. I was taught that you cannot have a time varying electric ...
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### What is the role of (why )universal gas constant in Nernst equation?

As in the ideal gas law, the universal gas constant allows for calculation of amount of energy associated with a certain group of molecules (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_constant). As the ...
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### Membrane resistance of a neuron

If there is literature that you are building off of or comparing your approach to, I would look in their papers to see what values they used and use the same. This is the standard approach, as it ...

### Voltage sensitive dyes technique: 2-photons microscopy vs confocal microscopy

Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy and 2-photon Fluorescence Microscopy are two techniques commonly used in neuroscience to image only one plane of the sample and thus increase resolution. However, how ...
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### Voltage sensitive dyes technique: What is the underlying measure?

I found that dF/F0 stands for the relative difference in fluorescence at a certain wavelength.
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### How do I obtain recordings of the P300 wave of the event-related potential in the EEG?

The P300 wave is a positive deflection in the human event-related potential (ERP). A common experiment in which it is analyzed is the "oddball" paradigm, where a subject detects an occasional target ...
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### Can I read what the person thinking through electrodes or something similar?

I take it you want to use eye movements for data input (rather than reading people's thoughts, which would be silly to consider). It's not the greatest idea, efficiency wise, but may have its ...
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### Parallel arrangement of capacitor and resistor in leaky integrate-and-fire model

I see your confusion is caused by $u_{rest}$. Indeed that diagram is somewhat confusing because $u_{rest}$ is not the main source relative to which to consider the topology of the circuit. The main ...
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### Is the weight of neural inputs in the human brain as central as it is for neurons in an artifical neural network?

The general biological term for this kind of mechanism is synaptic plasticity. Synapses are the biological structure that allow neurons to communicate via the exchange of neurotransmitters. The ...
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### Why is Potassium(K) important to neurology & the brain?

The main cell of the brain is the neuron. The neuron has a semipermeable membrane that under specific circumstances lets potassium through. Another common cell is the glia cell, which only has ...
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### What is the meaning of the peak polarity in EEG data?

Short answer The peak polarity of an EEG is arbitrary. Background Positive and negative in an EEG measure is arbitrary. If you measure the EEG between two electrodes and you flip the wires, the ...
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### How do you form a rationale to justify choice of time windows in ERP analysis?

Short answer Electrophysiological responses in general often come in waveforms. These are characterized by a number of peaks and troughs. Dependent on the specific response, arbitrary naming ...
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### What is input resistance and how to interpret its values?

Ohm's law famously states V=IR, the voltage change (V) across a resistor generated by a current (I) equals the current multiplied by the resistance (R). The resistor in this case is the cell ...
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### What is the role of Chloride (Cl- ions) in membrane potential?

Short answer Mostly Cl- is disregarded in calculations of the resting membrane potential and action potential voltage changes, because it is less important for the neural membrane characteristics than ...
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### What is the role of Chloride (Cl- ions) in membrane potential?

In normal neurons, Chloride's reversal potential is near the resting potential for the neuron and also happens to be near the leak conductance reversal potential for the neuron. While not exactly the ...
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### Applications and Limitations of EEG Electrode Pooling - Averaging across time series

This seems to be a rather painful terminology issue. "Pooling" is used in statistics to describe combining data / different sources of information in a single model. It's of particular interest in ...
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### Grid cells : Between what is the correlation of autocorrelogram measured?

Autocorrelation is calculated between the spikes-histogram and itself. The experiment is carried out while the activity of a specific neuron is recorded. Histogram - An animal runs in a circular ...
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### Simultaneous extracellular recording from different distant sites (in rodents)

I wouldn't know why multi-site cortical extracellular recordings would not be feasible? What would the practical experimental or technical limitation be in your opinion? As long as you have a ...
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### What does "diffuse slowing" mean in the context of EEG and Alzheimer's?

Medscape defines diffuse as generalized, in the context of EEG. Generalized means activity recorded across large portions of the cortex. This opposes focal patterns, that occur locally. In turn this ...
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### How fast can stimuli be administered for evoked potentials?

For auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) the click rate can be really high, as the auditory system is exceptionally fast, in the order of tens of stimuli per second (e.g., Rodriguez et al (2010. This ...
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### Sources on P1/N1 modulation with checkerboard probe

For the fundamentals, I always go back to the more dated literature that is heavily cited (in this field of research, which is pretty big given it uses visual evoked potentials, say >1k times). I ...
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### What are the differences between bipolar channels and monopolar channels for EEG?

In general, closely situated electrodes work well to eliminate environmental noise, at least when a differential amplifier is used. Environmental noise is a major problem in case of scalp-recorded ...
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### Grid cells : Between what is the correlation of autocorrelogram measured?

The recorded signal are spike responses (action potentials) (p.2 Method section), the different states are spike rates (p.4), and the calculated correlation is determined between spike rates and maze ...
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### Is it possible to imitate two way communication between a brain and a limb?

Short answer Mimicking action potentials is possible, but not the most practical approach. Background In general, stimulation of neural tissues occurs through placing electrodes in the vicinity of ...
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### What is the voltage that an intracortical electrode is expected to receive?

The Utah array is a multi-electrode array for intracortical recordings. In one of many publications on this device, the authors show some sample traces that reveal amplitudes generally between 5 and ...
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