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9

Short Answer Science is hard, brains are complicated, and the premises of your question that there is not work being done or advancements in this area is false. Longer Answer There is no known specific cause of bipolar disorder (as for many other psychological disorders). There is no simple statement like "bipolar disorder happens when you are low on XYZ ...


8

Haldol (haloperidol) is mainly known for its antipsychotic properties to treat schizophrenia. It's an aged antipsychotic with a lot of side effects. Because of this, haloperidol is nowadays mostly replaced by the atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine as first-line treatment. Haloperidol's primary mechanism of action is believed to be related to its ...


6

Can caffeine replace sleep? The simple answer here is no. The easiest way to explain why is to dip our toes into the mechanism by which caffeine works. In a nutshell, a large part of what you perceive as drowsiness is caused by adenosine building up in adenosine receptors. The longer you stay awake (and the more active you are to a degree), the more ...


6

Yes, the psychedelic Renaissance/ third wave (as I've heard it being called) is steadily gaining momentum. I almost feel like mentioning How to Change Your Mind by Michael Pollan here is too obvious, but just to be safe, here's a few links and a cultural review. There is also an exhaustive summary on Trippingly.net!


5

"The United Nations World Drug Report 2013 estimated that approximately 16.5 million people worldwide aged 15 or older used heroin or opium. Of these users, approximately 23% are estimated to develop opioid dependence." This is from the introduction section of Hser, Y. I., Evans, E., Grella, C., Ling, W., & Anglin, D. (2015). Long-term course of opioid ...


4

Do note that he says in the very next paragraph Some people will disagree strongly with this description of how drugs affect the mind. After all, for the past quarter-century we have been told with increasing confidence that drugs are "consciousness- expanding," and that using them enhances creativity. But the evidence suggests that while ...


4

Freely translated, the author says that... "Doing drugs is fine when performed under the guidance of experts in traditional, ritual contexts. Drugs reduce our perception of what is possible, and they reduce the perception of what we ourselves can achieve. Drugs do this until the two are in balance. This is pleasant. But, it is misleading and far greater joy ...


4

Current research tells us that yes, cannabis will affect the ability to recall dreams. As for the negative - positive outcomes, it seems to be subjective. One of the few researchers in this field, Hans Hamburger says: “By smoking weed, you suppress the REM sleep, and with that you also suppress a lot of important functions of that REM sleep. One of ...


3

Short answer Addicition is defined as: repeated involvement with a substance or activity, despite the substantial harm it now causes, because that involvement was (and may continue to be) pleasurable and/or valuable. The 'repeated involvement' basically excludes any drug from a diagnosis of addiction after first-time use. Addiction is a behavioral dependence ...


3

Because it's not as easy at it may seem. There is no direct biological distinguishment of any kind in such a case. It's like some prefer red, some prefer blue, some like both equally. In order to link this condition to any bio-chemical causes, very long term studies would be needed and the persons with Bipolar Disorder will likely not volunteer for such ...


3

First, thank you bringing that White et al. (2009) paper to my attention -- I am currently accumulating a whole bunch of cohort studies focusing on cognitive epidemiology, or health outcomes associated with cognitive ability. Here I will share with you some of what I have collected so far with respect to drug-related outcomes. Is this type of finding, ...


3

Short answer, which is one of many: One interesting hypothesis about this is the "reward hijacking" model. Essentially, when somebody becomes addicted their reward circuits become hypersensitive to drug-related cues and lack sensitivity to other rewards. Specifically, areas like their orbitofrontal cortex, which has to do with representing reward, and their ...


3

Studies have shown that strong doses of THC can significantly increase paranoid thinking. See the article, "How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Using the Intravenous Administration THC to Identify Key Cognitive Mechanisms Leading to Paranoia" by Freeman et al. for a more authoritative reference. From the article: In this large study of intravenous THC (...


3

I couldn't find a longitudinal study on this, which would be direct evidence, but it seems plausible due to circumstantial evidence: Just taking a dose to lowers the perception of facial sadness (expressed by others) Twenty-four healthy recreational cocaine users participated in this placebo-controlled within-subject study. [...] Findings show that cocaine ...


3

Smoking is associated with reduced memory and with decline in cognitive function over the long term. Compared to people who continue smoking, people who stop smoking sooner have less decline. From Sabia et al 2008: smokers compared with those who never smoked were more likely to be in the lowest quintile of cognitive performance. After adjustment for ...


2

Anticholinergics by themselves commonly have sedative effects. The reason you read about benztropine being used is that it has dopaminergic activity as well (in addition to anticholinergic activity). Specifically, benztropine and its derivatives are also dopamine reuptake inhibitors. So from the perspective that benztropine is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, ...


2

Drug tolerance can be generally defined as A condition that occurs when the body gets used to a medicine so that either more medicine is needed or different medicine is needed. Tolerance to drugs can be produced by several different mechanisms. In the case of morphine or heroin, tolerance develops at the level of the cellular targets. Activation of ...


2

I don't know how reproducible those findings are, but this study (Schretlen, van der Hulst, Pearlson, & Gordon, 2010) found a moderate association between fluid intelligence and openness to experience: The two separate samples yielded strikingly similar associations between trait Openness and cognitive test performance. In both samples, Openness ...


2

I could be wrong, since I'm not a doctor and all, but it's my understanding based on about ten years of studying issues like bipolar disorder online that to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, as well as other disorders, like OCD, people merely need to have a set of symptoms, which disrupt their lives sufficiently, which hopefully respond to certain kinds of ...


2

In light of this - has any general impairment test - that perhaps tests reaction times or some other metric, that can be administered at a roadside, been developed? Yes. I believe it is called the Standardised Field Sobriety Test (SFST). No, I'm quite serious -- read over your question, and consider whether a well-administered field sobriety test has ...


2

Based in Madison, Wisconsin, CTC & Associates provides technical communications services for the transportation sector, and together with the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT), they put together a report on how to monitor driver fatigue: to serve as a synthesis of pertinent completed research to be used for further study and evaluation by ...


1

When I read this word in context, I imagined somebody being afraid of getting caught. I would say that in the context of Marihuana, and modern parlance, the phenomenology of what we might call "paranoia" is more akin to an exaggerated anxious-preoccupation with matters that one might otherwise not concern themselves with. So, wouldn't you be paranoid if ...


1

There's a recent negative study: Bergwerff et al. (2016) "No Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Phenylalanine Abnormalities in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder": This study is the first to explore AAA metabolism in children with ADHD using a well-defined and relatively large sample. We found that AAA deficiencies are not related to ADHD. The ...


1

I think in this case, you should look at 2 graphs of optimal performance. So one inverted bell curve (Yerkes-Dodson Law)for the stimulant, and another for the 'downer'. So in this case, each has their own optimal productivity, and an interaction of the 2 isn't just a simple combination, because this would be a third graph altogether. So unless there is ...


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