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15

The truth is that very few people who haven't seriously contemplated suicide, or who haven't dealt extensively with many people who have, really understand it. They will, like you, not figure it out, thinking there are so many other options available to them. It is even more puzzling when wealthy people, who have so many more options than most, do so, while ...


13

It's all about the receptors, really. There are 7 families of serotonin receptors that perform different functions within the brain, and according to Wikipedia 14 different subtypes have been discovered. The article assumes that a blanket level of serotonin would be sufficient to "perk" up the brain, wherein it is much more complicated. Serotonin serves ...


9

I suppose at face value, the answer to the question "Is serotonin linked to depression?" would 'yes'. However, if the question was "Is Major Depressive Disorder or Dysthimia the result of deficits in serotonergic signaling?" the answer becomes much less black-and-white. First, to piggyback on Chuck's response, it is very important to consider 5-HT (...


8

Both schizofrenia and depression are linked to a genetic predisposition and life events. Individuals with no genetic predisposition may become depressed when the trigger is sufficiently intense, while individuals with genetic predisposition may become depressed in the absence of clear life events triggering the depression (Kendler et al, 1995). Reference - ...


8

Short answer Don't believe everything you read. Background The article cited (Kirsch, 2014) appears in a German journal with a mediocre impact factor. Not the most convincing platform. I'll cite parts of the abstract, starting with But analyses of the published data and the unpublished data that were hidden by drug companies reveals that most (if ...


7

Most of the 'true' hallucinogens are classified as 5HT2A agonists. 5HT2A is a postsynaptic serotonin receptor. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the other hand act by increasing serotonin (5HT) levels in the brain, which in turn activates presynaptic 5HT1A receptors. Due to a continuous stimulation of these 5HT1A receptors they become ...


7

Human depression has been modeled in a variety of animal models, including cats (Wilner, 1984). Cats show comparable signs of distress when subject to maternal separation, including separation phenomena of protest, followed by despair. Although it is hard to project the DSM-V criteria onto cats, they can show comparable behaviors when subject to anxiety and ...


7

Short answer: Bipolar disorder is probably not composed of two comorbid illnesses, but it may be on a continuum that includes some depressive disorders. This is a good question, though it does convey some confusion associated with this diagnosis that should be cleared up. Bipolar symptoms: The first confusion I think is the idea that "depression", "mania",...


7

Barriers to Psychologists Seeking Mental Health Care by Jennifer L. Bearse, Mark R. McMinn, Winston Seegobin, and Kurt Free of George Fox University asks a similar question. Professional psychologists provide help to people in need, but how freely do psychologists seek psychotherapy themselves when facing personal challenges and struggles? What obstacles ...


7

If you are talking about clinical depression as an illness, the direct answer to your question is: I don't know. There was a study of the effect of different genres of music on how people felt (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27900748). Note the participants only listened to the music for 15 minutes and the study in general is not that powerful. But ...


6

"Their lives are perfectly fine" is a hard to test thing. Hard to compare. How people feel and respond is deeply contextual. However there are several potential reasons: They may be 'wired' to feel stress or respond emotionally (i.e. Due to the way their brain has developed). A feeling of not being in control (This is often hard to perceive from outside ...


5

There certainly isn't a single cause of depression. Wikipedia does not list inflammation, so that seems to be sufficient disproof of universal acceptance, and at least one candidate for representative of mainstream opinions. Berk and colleagues (2013) make a pretty convincing case though, so it may only be a matter of time, exposure to the evidence, and ...


5

It may interest you to know that depression and anxiety relate to emotional stability (essentially the opposite of neuroticism), a personality trait which tends to decrease over the lifespan, especially in young adulthood (Roberts & Mroczek, 2008). Here's a figure depicting this trend (bottom left): This article points out that most of the personality ...


5

There is a lot of research on depression in animals. Wikipedia has a good summary of the comparison of depression between animals and humans: It is difficult to develop an animal model that perfectly reproduces the symptoms of depression in patients. Many animals lack self-consciousness, self-reflection, and consideration; moreover, hallmarks of ...


5

ADHD is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows. You are correct in ...


5

Different diagnostic systems may assign these syndromes to different categories based on theory or clinical opinion. In the DSM-IV era, OCD was listed under the "Anxiety disorders" category; however, in the DSM-5, it is now listed under a different "Obsessive-Compulsive and related disorders" category. ADHD is currently under the "Neurodevelopmental ...


5

Overall, based on my limited research it appears there is no evidence that people who are more logical are more likely to experience depression. There is a theory that people who see the world more accurately (of which rationality would be a component) are more likely to become depressed. It is called depressive realism {1}. However, the theory doesn't seem ...


5

From Wikipedia, with dysthymia being another word for "chronic depression": Globally dysthymia occurs in about 105 million people a year (1.5% of the population). It is slightly more common in women (1.8%) than in men (1.3%). The lifetime prevalence rate of dysthymia in community settings appears to range from 3 to 6% in the United States. However, in ...


5

"Depression" is a symptom or state of being, one that everyone can experience. "Major Depressive Disorder," however, is a diagnosable medical disorder for many reasons. The following list is by no means exhaustive: Major Depressive Disorder runs in families, and a genetic component is well established by family and twin studies. Anyone who experiences a ...


5

TLDR Many people say they are feeling depressed when really they are just suffering from a low mood. Andrew Solomon said The opposite of depression is not happiness, but vitality. And it was vitality that seemed to seep away from me in that moment. Everything there was to do seemed like too much work. (Solomon, 2013) This talk was about how depression ...


4

This may be more of a non-answer than an answer, but here it goes. When you're talking about the effect of something like pain, it's valuable to first understand some of the complexity. While it's easy to put things in boxes in practice, (physical pain, emotional pain, etc.) it's very difficult to put those things in boxes when you're talking about a ...


4

The proverb you mention is overly general to the point of being largely false (or at least unfalsifiable, to give some credit to the defensibility of philosophical solipsism otherwise). @JunJun and @felino's answers also generalize too much, but this is partly a consequence of a lack of specificity in the OP. Depression in general is widely misunderstood and ...


4

I'm not sure about the trained part, but there have been cases where people have spontaneously shifted into a very enjoyable state of mind for a very long time, for example: Eckhart Tolle, who supposedly spent 2 years in utter bliss.


4

This is a big question, but here are a few thoughts. While we could argue about the details, concepts around set points and the hedonic treadmill have reasonable empirical support. The general finding is that life satisfaction ratings are fairly stable from year to year (Lucas & Donnellan, 2007) which suggests that there are relatively stable individual ...


4

Short answer Brain zaps are a colloquial term for certain symptoms of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. Background 'Brain zaps' are associated with sudden shakes, or vibrations, tremors, jolts, electric shocks, or 'zaps' of the head and/or brain. As SydneyMaples rightfully commented, these are scientifically recognized as symptoms of ...


4

Yes, they can coexist. No, they aren't opposites. How could they be? Both ADHD and OCD affect a variety of different brain regions, and its effects are not consistent in every person. Maybe if OCD and all its symptoms were always caused by an excess of dopamine in one specific pathway in the reward system, whereas ADHD and all its symptoms was always caused ...


4

Yes, that is the consensus view among psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (e.g., Parker et al., 2012). A commonly referenced authoritative guideline for treatment of major depressive disorder is the NICE guide. Reference Parker et al., Acta Psychiatr Scand (2013); 128(4): 271-81


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