8

This is a cultural/situational phenomenon. I know that in my parents' generation (which grew up with poverty), it is common courtesy to never take the last piece of cake/whatever. The host always has to make sure there's plenty, because 1 piece left means that people are still hungry. Nowadays most people (in my culture and generation) are not so hesitant. ...


7

The study design sounds pretty good. Some of the good things you are proposing: Using a repeated measures design will give you more statistical power than a between subjects design, which is particularly useful when your sample size is small. Randomising or counterbalancing for order should mostly control for order effects. Double blind will focus the test ...


6

First we need to define what "subliminal messaging" means. I take it you mean to send a subliminal command and make someone obey that command. Based on that definition, here's some of what I find from googling: Effectiveness The effectiveness in subliminal messaging has been demonstrated to prime individual responses and stimulate mild emotional ...


5

Sexual attraction has mostly but not only a biological roots. Can this particular woman bear healthy children for me? Do I want this man? Can he be a good father? In a few seconds, someone can evaluate this simply in his/her mind (evaluate such factors as: height, weight, balance, hips, hair, smell, voice, how healthy the person looks, etc.) Also, social ...


5

Not sure what you describe is a cognitive bias in itself, but I suspect the scarcity heuristic may be part of the purchaser's rationalization. (See the wikipedia article for academic references.)


5

I am not entirely sure about the proper scientific names but I think your issue revolves around buying things because they are cheap; hard to find. The first is a notorious reason to buy stuff; the impulsive purchase of goods, simply because they are advertised as 'buy two, pay for one!'. This bargain hunting can indeed become pathological and addictive (...


4

It's called "accentuate the positive, eliminate the negative." Or put another way, it's easier to portray the glass as "half full" rather than "half empty." Especially when the ratio is not 50-50, but 99- to -1. That is "99 percent good" sounds a lot better than "1 percent bad." The above psychological factors are so powerful that they appear to outweigh ...


4

Your question rightly refers to different types of subliminal messaging, and so there is much confusion in this area. This was not helped by James Vicary's fraudulent "Drink Coca-Cola" study. Many people took this at face value and assumed that all forms of subliminal research were stopped in its tracks. In fact, the opposite is true - the controversy ...


3

Digital Marketing often produces 'content' for users to consume. That content is ment to catch and keep the attention of the user, in an attempt to make the user trust and follow the sender (usually a website or blog). When the user shows engagement like clicking the right buttons, the user will somehow be tempted with some kind of offer (a newsletter, a ...


3

Overchoice or "choice overload" are the common used terms for describing the cognitive process in which people have a difficult time making a decision when faced with many options (Wikipedia on Overchoice) The same souce refers that the concept was first introduced by Alvin Toffler in his book named Future Shock. Barry Schwartz as well as Barbara Fasolo ...


2

I am not aware of any use in using "high audio frequencies" in commercials, but there is a history of making commercials louder (presumably to attract attention). There are laws prohibiting increasing the loudness of commercials (e.g., CALM Act). Increasing the loudness, without remotely adjusting the volume on the TV is not a trivial thing and potentially ...


2

Grabner-Kräuter et al (2003) suggest that Lack of trust is one of the most frequently cited reasons for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors. References Grabner-Kräuter, S., & Kaluscha, E. A. (2003). Empirical research in on-line trust: a review and critical assessment. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(6), 783-812. ...


2

There is no ambiguity as such with respect to expectations in those examples. When you buy a Kinder Egg, you know up front you won't know what's in there. In other words, it's perfectly unambiguous that you don't know what to expect from a Kinder Egg.


2

The behaviour of agents can be predicted from utility or value based decision analysis models. Basically, you can model how the agent decides based on multiple objectives (or goals) by means of a multicriteria decision model. A simple multicriteria model consists in the weighted aggregation of value (utility) functions. Value (utility) functions represent ...


2

How to integrate realistic cognitive models of human behaviour and ecomonic models is an open research question, however to tackle it, it might be helpful to break it into a few more easily answerable sub-questions: What models of human planning with emotional influence exist? There are a number of models in existence that try to capture emotion and ...


1

A very generic question It is very hard to answer this question because it is very generic. In order to get a clearer answer you'd have to narrow down your definition of what exactly constitutes subliminal message and what exactly constitutes an effect. Once done, you can now talk about specific types of stimuli processed purely by the subconscious, and ...


1

I think your examples can be explained with the Anchoring bias (aslo know as focalism). Anchoring or focalism is a cognitive bias that describes the common human tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions. During decision making, anchoring occurs when individuals use an initial piece ...


1

A few options. You could start with an open ended question and then move to closed ended questions for leading brands and perhaps any other options listed in the previously open ended process. You could use an input box that takes text and shows partial matches which people then select (e.g., a bit like in Facebook when selecting a friend)


1

it seems that you can use randomization of options to decrease bias. That is, present every respondent with multiple choices but in completely random order. Also, bias might be directly tested on two groups, say A&B. Only difference will be the order of available answers. This manual seems to be very helpful: Handbook of Survey Research, Ch.9 Question ...


1

"Building rapport" is not actually A technique, but a general phrase that may cover a whole lot of specific techniques. "Rapport" does not normally occur in scientific contexts, it mostly occurs within anecdotal subjects like sales and NLP. Individual sales techniques and NLP is usually not based on science at all, so they do not care for what is ...


1

The 'hardwired' things we value in partners include not only physical and psychological suitability for procreating, but also social status. Thus, any visible indicators that we associate with high status are also perceived as sexy even if they don't have no direct match to anything else, and mass media can affect what properties indicators are perceived ...


1

Most frequently people want a different version of what they already have or have liked in the past. That's why there are countless "clones" of video games, movies and books. Coolidge Effect explains why people devalue past sexual partners over time (as in your girlfriend example) and seek novel partners instead. Another explanation is that people want ...


1

In economic terms this can also be defined in terms of marginal utility of a thing, experience etc (von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1944). As soon as you have (enough of) something and/or got used to having it, something novel and/or relativelively scarce that might be useful will seem attractive. Maybe because it's evolutionary fit to strive for the optimal ...


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