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First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable of conducting electricity at zero Kelvin. Many elements and compounds become metallic under high pressures, for instance iodine. Reversely, the metal sodium ...


5

This is called procedural memory. In textbooks, memory is often broken down into a hierarchy of types. Note that this taxonomy is primarily a guide to language use - ie, how types of memory are labelled or referred to, not how memory is actually organised in the brain. In standard hierarchies, recalling a mathematical formula would fall under semantic ...


4

Overall, the claim seems to be that people prefer holding their current beliefs. This is well-documented, for example in a big literature on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance . Note that this may be culturally dependent; some Buddhist traditions explicitly value holding contradictory beliefs. It's possible the study being referred to in the ...


3

The majority of people who recovered from coma did not report any experiences that occurred while they were in coma (clinically unresponsive, with absent or minimal brainstem reflexes, and with severely abnormal EEG). However, some people who had cardiac arrest or came very close to clinical death but were successfully revived reported later that they had ...


3

According to Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Dec; 120(12): 1671–1677: of 9 different cognitive tests performed at 600ppm (green), 1000ppm (blue) and 2500ppm (red) several show very marked decrease in scores at higher C02 concentration. ...


3

Predicting individual side effects is generally not feasible in current clinical practice, although in the purview of "personalized medicine", mostly as a research goal/topic. For psychotropic medications, this is largely envisaged to work through pharmacogenomics: In pharmacogenomics, genomic information is used to study individual responses to drugs. ...


2

Savant syndrome can be congenital or acquired.[1,2] The acquired savant syndrome can occur in people with stroke, head injury, and even some degenerative diseases (such as dementia) that affect the left fronto-temporal lobe. [1] Transcranial magnetic stimulations of this area, which can cause inhibition in this area, can also elicit these kinds of unusual ...


2

This is a fairly open-ended question... One example of the potentially negative consequences of overexpressed BDNF is its effect on the likelihood and frequency of epileptic seizures. I guess the short version of this effect is that BDNF appears to promote neuronal growth, including neurogenesis, axonal and synaptic sprouting, and neuronal excitation, in ...


2

Caveats There's some points to keep in mind when thinking about this: While it is true that connections in cortex are reciprocal, this does not mean that they are symmetric. Cortical connectivity is quite elaborate and the neurons that send bottom-up signals to the next higher area are not necessarily the same neurons that receive the feedback. The forward ...


2

Firstly not trusting the brain in itself does more harm than good, as it gives way to paranoia and anxiety, and serves to be a very unhealthy mental disaster. Secondly, there is much more to decision making in the brain than just intuition and the analytical part of function, as factors such as personality, perception stemming from the frontal , and ...


2

Therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of psychoneuro-pharmaceutical drugs are tested using the same gold standard as usd for more conventional drugs, namely in randomized controlled trials. Phase I trials focus on side effects and dosages in a small group of healthy subjects. Phase II testings assess efficacy and side effects in a medium-sized ...


2

How can we earnestly predict the effects, both therapeutic and adverse, of psychotropic drugs on the specific patient in front of us? The basic answer is that you cannot necessarily predict accurately how any medication will affect any individual person. Medications can in general, carry risks of side effects. The risk levels of each side effect will also ...


2

No; the medial frontal gyrus is medial; it faces the sagittal midline of the brain. Medial is the opposite of lateral; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is lateral, facing towards the outside of the brain. Perhaps you are thinking of the middle frontal gyrus?


2

One approach to this is to search for "habituation", "learned task", "concomitant task", "dual task" and "multiple task" studies, which may include cognitive and physical aspects (memory, reaction time and such). "Background tasks" are usually related to computers.


1

There are, as far as I know, 2 main factors that determine the speed of action potential propagation: Diameter: Axons with a large diameter have lower resistances, and hence higher conduction velocities; Myelination: Myelin prevents passive diffusion of ions through the cell's membrane and increases charge separation across the cell membrane, speeding up ...


1

It's probably a bit more complicated than that. Cortical areas tend to be highly connected with their contralateral counterparts, so it's not really fair to expect that the effects of stimulation on one side of the brain doesn't impact the contralateral side. The claustrum is itself a small gray matter region, but it is surrounded by white matter as well. ...


1

Not sure, but I think you'd find it interesting that there are some humans out there who do not have an intuitive sense of any number past two. For example, people who are part of hunter gatherer tribes who, for example, only need to know that they have a lot of berries, not that they have exactly 7 or exactly 65; for their lifestyle, there is no need for ...


1

MMN/MMR refer to responses during an oddball paradigm. The typical arrangement of this sort of paradigm is to have a sequence of stimuli, for example, a sequence of tones of one frequency, followed by either the same tone (standard) or a different tone (oddball). For EEG, they are the same thing. Mismatch negativity is a particular response in the EEG ...


1

The IPIP scales are in the public domain: https://ipip.ori.org/ They are intended to have no restrictions on use. https://ipip.ori.org/newPermission.htm Because the IPIP has been placed in the public domain, permission has already been automatically granted for any person to use IPIP items, scales, and inventories for any purpose, commercial or non-...


1

It is possible to look at within-subject interactions using cluster permutation tests. I.e. Eric Maris here: https://mailman.science.ru.nl/pipermail/fieldtrip/2011-January/003447.html 2x2x2 with factors A,B,C has 4 interactions AxB, AxC, BxC and AxBxC and 8 cells +--------+-------------+-------------+ | C = 0 | B = 0 | B = 1 | +--------+------...


1

You have one p-values for each ROI timecourse (for the largest cluster) indicating whether your conditions are exchangeable. If you want to correct for the 4 ROIs you could use any adequate multiple comparison correction, from classical Bonferroni (which might be too conservative as the tests are likely not completly independent) to Benjamini-Hochberg style ...


1

The primary issue is defining what you mean by "conciousness". Even from reading your attempts to do so in your question, one can see that this is quite difficult: does it mean self-awareness? intelligence? a "soul"? It is impossible to determine a "chemical reaction for consciousness", because there is no agreed upon definition of "consciousness" and how ...


1

Another explanation for this is that the centers for speech and singing, respectively, are located in different parts of the brain. People with speech impediments, and even severe brain damage from trauma such as Aphasia or Tourette Syndrome, tend to exhibit damage in the speech areas of the left hemisphere of the brain. The parts of the brain that are ...


1

According neurological perspective, Amygdala is involved in pleasurable emotional learning as well as fearful emotional learning. awareness of the aversive nature of stimuli is sufficient to guide our actions. We avoid dangerous neighborhoods or shark-infested waters, not mainly because we have been attacked by sharks in those locations, but instead ...


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