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First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable of conducting electricity at zero Kelvin. Many elements and compounds become metallic under high pressures, for instance iodine. Reversely, the metal sodium ...


5

This is called procedural memory. In textbooks, memory is often broken down into a hierarchy of types. Note that this taxonomy is primarily a guide to language use - ie, how types of memory are labelled or referred to, not how memory is actually organised in the brain. In standard hierarchies, recalling a mathematical formula would fall under semantic ...


5

Psychology The first major source I would go to is the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY). It is a major longitudinal study following several cohorts of mathematically talented individuals. There are many publications regarding their interests, talents, life paths, achievements, et cetera. The study is headed by Camilla Benbow and David ...


4

Overall, the claim seems to be that people prefer holding their current beliefs. This is well-documented, for example in a big literature on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance . Note that this may be culturally dependent; some Buddhist traditions explicitly value holding contradictory beliefs. It's possible the study being referred to in the ...


4

According to Anil Seth, in his talk, perception is an active construction process. In that view, it is the construction of mind-independent objects so that the perceiver has an experience of such an object. Even though I mentioned objects, it could be material things and features. But our sensory abilities are not inherently cable of perceiving everything. ...


4

I would suggest you start with the Wikipedia articles on Categorization and more specifically Prototype theory. While the Categorization article gives a number of branching points for you to drill down on and hone in and/or prime your thinking for further searches, the Prototype theory topic is where my mind went upon first reading your question Even ...


3

Cognitive dissonance is often a problem when trying to convince someone of your position. Depending on the subject matter and how closely the position is held for the opposing party it can be very difficult to follow even logical well reasoned arguments. The opposing party often has a framework of reality in which they make sense of various situations or ...


3

The study you refer to shows that a measure of brain white matter connectivity, called diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows increases in structural connectivity between brain areas that have been previously implicated in reasoning and other brain functions. The news article goes on to make additional claims, not made in the paper, that this result means ...


3

Apparently voluntary piloerection is extremely rare amongst the popoluation. Only about 35 people out of about 7.6 billion people in the world have been confirmed to exhibit voluntary piloerection in the scientific literature. For piloerection in general, only 2/3 of the population exhibit this trait. As is stated in the abstract of the cited source below (...


3

Caveats There's some points to keep in mind when thinking about this: While it is true that connections in cortex are reciprocal, this does not mean that they are symmetric. Cortical connectivity is quite elaborate and the neurons that send bottom-up signals to the next higher area are not necessarily the same neurons that receive the feedback. The forward ...


3

You'd need to "shut down arousal" to give a causal dissociation of arousal and memory reactivation, right? E.g. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3174240/ Then you'd need to define what do you mean by "memory activation", physiologically, and record there simultaneously with the above. This will introduce additional difficulty in a mouse due to ...


2

This is a fairly open-ended question... One example of the potentially negative consequences of overexpressed BDNF is its effect on the likelihood and frequency of epileptic seizures. I guess the short version of this effect is that BDNF appears to promote neuronal growth, including neurogenesis, axonal and synaptic sprouting, and neuronal excitation, in ...


2

A bit of context In mammalian brains, a main neurotransmiter linked with reward is Dopamine. This molecule is produced in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and in the Substantia Nigra (SN). In a very famous study, Schultz recorded neurons in this two regions (at the time, we didn't really make the difference between them), and realised that the activity of ...


2

You can buy the book in particular Chapter 18: Building an EEG study. There is also the PsychoPy forum with 50+ questions about EEG. You could also go to the lead developers OSF page and steal some code there from his EEG experiments.


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A collection of classic EEG experiments implemented in Python and Jupyter notebooks. Currently, all experiments are implemented for the Muse EEG device and using psychopy lib for stimulus presentation. Classification is made offline though. But I'll post very soon an online tutorial: https://github.com/NeuroTechX/eeg-notebooks/tree/master/notebooks


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Short answer The underlying mechanism(s) causing the differences between the effectiveness of anodic and cathodic neural stimulation are largely unknown. Background As far as I know, the exact difference between the effectiveness of cathodic versus anodic stimulation are largely unknown. For instance, in animals and humans, both anodic and cathodic pulses ...


2

In a comprehensive review that included 140+ primary research papers, Juslin & Laukka (2003) explain that there is a close relationship between vocal expression of emotions and the musical expression of emotions. Indeed, music and speech have similar characteristics and therefore can illicit similar emotions (table 1). Table 1. Commonalities of speech ...


2

Are those reliable differences? Without knowing what confidence intervals you plotted it's difficult to estimate visually (95%? ±1 SD?), but I wouldn't be surprised that there are no statistically significant performance differences between those levels. Keep in mind that if this test emerged only after seeing the data, rather than a priori based on theory, ...


2

So let me start off by saying that the word dyslexia is a well-defined term describing a condition typically affecting the left angular gyrus. If you're looking for a biological condition that leaves a similar effect on reasoning, I'm afraid you've got in backwards. Humans are rational beings, but that doesn't mean we always, or even often, behave ...


2

Firstly not trusting the brain in itself does more harm than good, as it gives way to paranoia and anxiety, and serves to be a very unhealthy mental disaster. Secondly, there is much more to decision making in the brain than just intuition and the analytical part of function, as factors such as personality, perception stemming from the frontal , and ...


2

Additionally, active construction of reality doesn't mean there are basic objective reality. Usually our mind uses similar mechanisms to understand this basic reality. our byological makeup, psychological processes and broad social context provides us basic assumptions, and other tools to understand what is going on in the world. usually what we perceive ...


1

The primary issue is defining what you mean by "conciousness". Even from reading your attempts to do so in your question, one can see that this is quite difficult: does it mean self-awareness? intelligence? a "soul"? It is impossible to determine a "chemical reaction for consciousness", because there is no agreed upon definition of "consciousness" and how ...


1

Short answer According to a study by Boutsen et al. Thatcherization of objects (houses in this study) did not reveal the Thatcher effect, while faces did. Background The Thatcher-face illusion (Fig 1) is, in my opinion, not really an illusion. Instead, it is a phenomenon where in-congruent features are more apparent when observed in their normal everyday ...


1

The IPIP scales are in the public domain: https://ipip.ori.org/ They are intended to have no restrictions on use. https://ipip.ori.org/newPermission.htm Because the IPIP has been placed in the public domain, permission has already been automatically granted for any person to use IPIP items, scales, and inventories for any purpose, commercial or non-...


1

Instead of pointing you to existing theories, which is (1) too advanced for you to understand at the current level of knowledge, and (2) too focused so that you don't have a big picture, why don't we just suggest you to read a textbook about cognition? It will solve both problems at the same time. I recommend the book Cognitive Psychology, written by ...


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I'm not aware of any comparative study between mathematicians and normal human but there is some research on professional mathematicians: Stanislas Dehaene has done some research on how the brain of professional mathematicians work, specifically a study suggestion that mathematical reasonings does not rely heavily on language: https://www.pnas.org/content/...


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The question is quite vague, as it is unclear what the sample size is and whether OP is talking about an anecdotal experiment or the outcome of a well-powered statistical analysis. Moreover, there is mention of two conditions, but I fail to see what the difference is between the two. Assuming a normal sample size, I can say that the measured amplitudes of ...


1

According neurological perspective, Amygdala is involved in pleasurable emotional learning as well as fearful emotional learning. awareness of the aversive nature of stimuli is sufficient to guide our actions. We avoid dangerous neighborhoods or shark-infested waters, not mainly because we have been attacked by sharks in those locations, but instead ...


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