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6

First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable of conducting electricity at zero Kelvin. Many elements and compounds become metallic under high pressures, for instance iodine. Reversely, the metal sodium ...


5

This is called procedural memory. In textbooks, memory is often broken down into a hierarchy of types. Note that this taxonomy is primarily a guide to language use - ie, how types of memory are labelled or referred to, not how memory is actually organised in the brain. In standard hierarchies, recalling a mathematical formula would fall under semantic ...


5

Psychology The first major source I would go to is the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY). It is a major longitudinal study following several cohorts of mathematically talented individuals. There are many publications regarding their interests, talents, life paths, achievements, et cetera. The study is headed by Camilla Benbow and David ...


4

Overall, the claim seems to be that people prefer holding their current beliefs. This is well-documented, for example in a big literature on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance . Note that this may be culturally dependent; some Buddhist traditions explicitly value holding contradictory beliefs. It's possible the study being referred to in the ...


4

I would suggest you start with the Wikipedia articles on Categorization and more specifically Prototype theory. While the Categorization article gives a number of branching points for you to drill down on and hone in and/or prime your thinking for further searches, the Prototype theory topic is where my mind went upon first reading your question Even ...


3

Cognitive dissonance is often a problem when trying to convince someone of your position. Depending on the subject matter and how closely the position is held for the opposing party it can be very difficult to follow even logical well reasoned arguments. The opposing party often has a framework of reality in which they make sense of various situations or ...


2

This is a fairly open-ended question... One example of the potentially negative consequences of overexpressed BDNF is its effect on the likelihood and frequency of epileptic seizures. I guess the short version of this effect is that BDNF appears to promote neuronal growth, including neurogenesis, axonal and synaptic sprouting, and neuronal excitation, in ...


2

A bit of context In mammalian brains, a main neurotransmiter linked with reward is Dopamine. This molecule is produced in the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and in the Substantia Nigra (SN). In a very famous study, Schultz recorded neurons in this two regions (at the time, we didn't really make the difference between them), and realised that the activity of ...


2

You can buy the book in particular Chapter 18: Building an EEG study. There is also the PsychoPy forum with 50+ questions about EEG. You could also go to the lead developers OSF page and steal some code there from his EEG experiments.


2

A collection of classic EEG experiments implemented in Python and Jupyter notebooks. Currently, all experiments are implemented for the Muse EEG device and using psychopy lib for stimulus presentation. Classification is made offline though. But I'll post very soon an online tutorial: https://github.com/NeuroTechX/eeg-notebooks/tree/master/notebooks


2

Caveats There's some points to keep in mind when thinking about this: While it is true that connections in cortex are reciprocal, this does not mean that they are symmetric. Cortical connectivity is quite elaborate and the neurons that send bottom-up signals to the next higher area are not necessarily the same neurons that receive the feedback. The forward ...


2

So let me start off by saying that the word dyslexia is a well-defined term describing a condition typically affecting the left angular gyrus. If you're looking for a biological condition that leaves a similar effect on reasoning, I'm afraid you've got in backwards. Humans are rational beings, but that doesn't mean we always, or even often, behave ...


2

Firstly not trusting the brain in itself does more harm than good, as it gives way to paranoia and anxiety, and serves to be a very unhealthy mental disaster. Secondly, there is much more to decision making in the brain than just intuition and the analytical part of function, as factors such as personality, perception stemming from the frontal , and ...


2

Savant syndrome can be congenital or acquired.[1,2] The acquired savant syndrome can occur in people with stroke, head injury, and even some degenerative diseases (such as dementia) that affect the left fronto-temporal lobe. [1] Transcranial magnetic stimulations of this area, which can cause inhibition in this area, can also elicit these kinds of unusual ...


2

According to Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Dec; 120(12): 1671–1677: of 9 different cognitive tests performed at 600ppm (green), 1000ppm (blue) and 2500ppm (red) several show very marked decrease in scores at higher C02 concentration. ...


2

One approach to this is to search for "habituation", "learned task", "concomitant task", "dual task" and "multiple task" studies, which may include cognitive and physical aspects (memory, reaction time and such). "Background tasks" are usually related to computers.


1

Not sure, but I think you'd find it interesting that there are some humans out there who do not have an intuitive sense of any number past two. For example, people who are part of hunter gatherer tribes who, for example, only need to know that they have a lot of berries, not that they have exactly 7 or exactly 65; for their lifestyle, there is no need for ...


1

The question is quite vague, as it is unclear what the sample size is and whether OP is talking about an anecdotal experiment or the outcome of a well-powered statistical analysis. Moreover, there is mention of two conditions, but I fail to see what the difference is between the two. Assuming a normal sample size, I can say that the measured amplitudes of ...


1

It is possible to look at within-subject interactions using cluster permutation tests. I.e. Eric Maris here: https://mailman.science.ru.nl/pipermail/fieldtrip/2011-January/003447.html 2x2x2 with factors A,B,C has 4 interactions AxB, AxC, BxC and AxBxC and 8 cells +--------+-------------+-------------+ | C = 0 | B = 0 | B = 1 | +--------+------...


1

You have one p-values for each ROI timecourse (for the largest cluster) indicating whether your conditions are exchangeable. If you want to correct for the 4 ROIs you could use any adequate multiple comparison correction, from classical Bonferroni (which might be too conservative as the tests are likely not completly independent) to Benjamini-Hochberg style ...


1

The primary issue is defining what you mean by "conciousness". Even from reading your attempts to do so in your question, one can see that this is quite difficult: does it mean self-awareness? intelligence? a "soul"? It is impossible to determine a "chemical reaction for consciousness", because there is no agreed upon definition of "consciousness" and how ...


1

Short answer According to a study by Boutsen et al. Thatcherization of objects (houses in this study) did not reveal the Thatcher effect, while faces did. Background The Thatcher-face illusion (Fig 1) is, in my opinion, not really an illusion. Instead, it is a phenomenon where in-congruent features are more apparent when observed in their normal everyday ...


1

The IPIP scales are in the public domain: https://ipip.ori.org/ They are intended to have no restrictions on use. https://ipip.ori.org/newPermission.htm Because the IPIP has been placed in the public domain, permission has already been automatically granted for any person to use IPIP items, scales, and inventories for any purpose, commercial or non-...


1

Instead of pointing you to existing theories, which is (1) too advanced for you to understand at the current level of knowledge, and (2) too focused so that you don't have a big picture, why don't we just suggest you to read a textbook about cognition? It will solve both problems at the same time. I recommend the book Cognitive Psychology, written by ...


1

I'm not aware of any comparative study between mathematicians and normal human but there is some research on professional mathematicians: Stanislas Dehaene has done some research on how the brain of professional mathematicians work, specifically a study suggestion that mathematical reasonings does not rely heavily on language: https://www.pnas.org/content/...


1

According neurological perspective, Amygdala is involved in pleasurable emotional learning as well as fearful emotional learning. awareness of the aversive nature of stimuli is sufficient to guide our actions. We avoid dangerous neighborhoods or shark-infested waters, not mainly because we have been attacked by sharks in those locations, but instead ...


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