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There a are globally two perspectives the discrete perspective uses a categorization system. There are many different systems, with more or less core emotions and sub-emotions. As the one shown in your post. the dimensional perspective considers one, mainly two, sometimes more, scales to identify an emotional value. Valence (happy/sad) and arousal (sleepy/...


5

This is of course a big question and I don't believe that there is a definite answer to it. A very thorough investigation of this matter comes from Rogers and McClelland (2004), who have a developed a parallel distributed theory of acquisition, representation and use of human semantic knowledge. As the name implies, this effort comes from the realm of ...


4

Vogels and Orban (1985) asked subjects to complete several thousand angle judgments at near-principal angles (horizontal or vertical). They found that the just-noticeable difference (JND), the threshold at which people could reliably detect deviation from a horizontal line, was 0.5 degrees after a 600ms exposure to the stimulus. The real purpose of their ...


4

I cannot tell you why they chose four cards, but I do know that it is perfectly fine to use three, (e.g. Niv and colleagues, 2015). To give you more info on why the WCST is used in the study by Niv. The study wanted to see how you could best model learning (and relearning) multidimensional information, to be able to better understand how people make sense ...


4

The purpose of unbiased hit rate is to avoid invalid conclusions in cases where subjects indiscriminately use one (or only few) response options. To give an example (responses in rows, stimuli in columns): Happy Sad Angry Fearful Happy 1 0 0 1 Sad 7 8 6 5 Angry 0 0 0 0 ...


3

The recently published Atlas of personality, emotion and behaviour catalogues over 3,000 emotions (Mobbs, 2020). A summary of the emotions is below with a more comprehensive version included in the article. The atlas uses the dimensions of affiliation and dominance compared to the Russell model of affect and vallence. The article identifies the ...


3

As far as I am aware, there is no such word in the English language as Philia, but it is a suffix within words. Also, the suffix of -philia in a word does not necessarily denote anything sexual. The -philia suffix denotes one of the following (Merriam-Webster, n.d.): friendly feeling toward(as in Francophilia) tendency toward(as in hemophilia) abnormal ...


3

Citing Muller et al’s, (1955) work on electronic displays, Eastman Kodak’s (1983) Ergonomics Design for People at Work states that people can discriminate 24 different absolute angles of inclination under optimum viewing conditions. This implies that an angle of 360/24 = 15 degrees can be readily classified as inclined rather than flat. However, I’d say 15 ...


2

Several different, well-received theories of education would say yes. However, it depends on the quality of 'correct' information that is received after the answer is deemed 'incorrect'. In Jean Piaget's constructivist theory of education, it is theorized that individuals construct new knowledge through methods of assimilation and accommodation. ...


2

The insular cortex seems to play a role in sorting based on salience - how important something is to us (Uddin, 2015). In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), commonly associated with error detection, is relevant. Some parts of the insular cortex have also been linked to a sense of self, so this seems reasonable. The mental activities involved ...


2

There's no one good answer to this unfortunately, the question is too broad. Seems like you have made a decent start, here are two more quite different methods-focused references to add to your reading that might help: Divjak, Dagmar, and Antti Arppe. "Extracting prototypes from exemplars What can corpus data tell us about concept representation?." (2013): ...


1

The differences between illusion and hallucinations are quite clear and have been known for over 100 years. For example, hallucinations are when you see things in total darkness or hear things when there is no sound. It is perception WITHOUT an external stimuli. Regarding illusions, there IS something to be seen, heard, tasted or felt, an external stimulis, ...


1

For sure presentations aimed at lay audiences tend to oversimplify and exaggerate research findings, but for the underlying construct, there is a great deal of evidence, and it is considered widely accepted in the field. The technical term for it is dual-process theory, and is often referred to as System 1 and System 2 based on the popular book Thinking, ...


1

My understanding is that the internalizing/externalizing dichotomy refers to the way symptoms are expressed, not the source/cause of the disorder. Internalizing disorders are those that mostly have an internal impact and tend to lead sufferers to withdraw or hide their affliction. Externalizing disorders tend to impact others more directly with outward-...


1

I wanted to report further findings in my search for the answer to this question. I will not accept this as the answer but I think anyone else who looks into this issue may find this information useful. I obtained the original paper by Berg (1) published in 1948 in the journal of general psychology. The paper makes no explicit mention of why 4 stimulus ...


1

Binary processes may be observed at various stages of intuitive and deliberative thought, which may in some cases plausibly be modelled as categories, but you’ll want to consider that on a case-by-case basis. Many of the relevant processes are binary simply because like formal logic, they involve toggle switches (true/false). Heuristics The simplifying ...


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