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The primary visual cortex is topographic, which means that specific parts of that brain region correspond exactly to specific parts of your visual field. In order to prove that a scotoma (literally a blind spot in your vision) is due to dysfunctional neurons, all you need to do is show that the neurons responsible for that spot in your vision are not working ...


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According to Is CO2 an Indoor Pollutant? Direct Effects of Low-to-Moderate CO2 Concentrations on Human Decision-Making Performance Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Dec; 120(12): 1671–1677: of 9 different cognitive tests performed at 600ppm (green), 1000ppm (blue) and 2500ppm (red) several show very marked decrease in scores at higher C02 concentration. ...


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Indeed, the brain is absolutely full of vasculature; I thought this image was a nice example... (figure from Adams et al 2015) (a) and (d) are sections through cortex, parallel to the surface. All the black/colored dots are indicating vessels (arterioles and venules) that are diving down into the brain. (b) shows the vasculature of the pial surface, where ...


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Q: But does this association (that the head is the place where thought processes happen) have any grounds in actual sensing? A: Yes, the association (that the head is the place where thought processes happen) has the ground in evolutionary neurophysiology. Thinking, analyzing, deciding, and other cognitive functions are the most important functions for a ...


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In the 4th century BC, Aristotle wrote that the source of intelligence was the heart (source). Other greeks like Alcmaeon of Croton thought it might be the brain. I think the fact that they were having this discussion means that it's not obvious from our sensations alone that the thoughts are happening in the head.


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I don't know of research that discusses this, as it seems to be more of a philosophical question rather than a scientific one. A quick search in Google Scholar did not yield a lot scientific articles, and rather, showed that this topic may be more theoretical. Still, I'd suggest a few readings such as Rousseau's Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, or this ...


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