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15

The widely quoted figure of "10% at a time" is actually overestimating simultaneous brain activity by up to an order of magnitude. As demonstrated by Lennie 2003 (Current Biology), the number of neurons that can be substantially active concurrently is possibly as small as 1% of the brain's neurons, due to the high metabolic cost of spiking. Generally, ...


7

Short Answer It appears that stimulation of the thalamus would invoke feeling of pain: Direct deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the VP thalamus from patients without pain typically evoked nonpainful, paraesthetic sensation. DBS at the core and posterior inferior region of the VP thalamus can evoke pain sensation without specific topographic distribution. ...


7

Short answer Human brain transplants have never been performed, so any answers to what will happen are mere speculations. Background Whole-head transplants have been performed on animals, the first reports go back to the 1970's (Canavero, 2013). The practice is still pursued today (e.g.., Ren et al., 2015)). Up until now, however, it has not been done in ...


6

This phenomenon is called delayed auditory feedback. Why is still an open question, but two theories are: Servomotor hypothesis: delayed auditory feedback creates an error signal, which the motor systems uses to attempt to correct the motor output. Distruptive rhythm hypothesis: Speech is too fast for error correcting feedback (i.e. speech is feedforward), ...


6

Far from being one single organ performing a single homogeneous function, the brain is actually several lobes, and each lobe is like a separate organ performing a dozen functions. Putting it in another way, the brain is not like a "thinking machine", it is more like a collection of computers, instrument panels of an aircraft, radars and sonars of a submarine,...


6

Paul Reber, professor of psychology at Northwestern University, stated that The human brain consists of about one billion neurons. Each neuron forms about 1,000 connections to other neurons, amounting to more than a trillion connections. If each neuron could only help store a single memory, running out of space would be a problem. You might have only a ...


6

The diagram is a somewhat simplistic representation of brain functions, but it is accurate. The diagram given shows the primary areas that complete the actions listed. However, the entire brain is connected and communicates with itself extensively, so it isn't like the occipital lobe is the only brain region active when you see something. For example, when ...


5

From meta-analyses that include musical emotion inductions, there is not much evidence that we can reliably distinguish between emotions in the brain, independent of the emotion induction procedure or meta-analytical method (1 2 3 4 5). We might be able to distinguish emotions with specificity and reliability within an individual, but this kind of work is ...


5

I take it you want to use eye movements for data input (rather than reading people's thoughts, which would be silly to consider). It's not the greatest idea, efficiency wise, but may have its strengths in terms of convenience. From a fairly recent (2014) review of eye based HCI: It should be noted, though, that gaze control of WIMP is noticeably slower ...


5

You mentioned the neurotransmitters released at the synaptic cleft, but seem to be interested in the complete picture. An action potential is actually very slow to propagate down an axon with a conduction velocity from 0.5 to 150 m/s, depending on how myelinated the axon is (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10921/). A toddler can run faster than the ...


5

The question title reads: Does the split brain disprove a materialistic mind? The simple answer being no, nothing disproves that - the brain harbors the mind e.g., (Lilienfeld & Arkowitz, 2008). Now you mention that two hypotheses on split-brain patients are false, namely... Both [hemispheres] gain their own conscious mind. Only one [...


5

Short answer Intracortical projections can be routed directly to other cortical areas (cortico-cortical projections), or via the thalamus (cortico-thalamo-cortical projections). Background Intracortical projections do not have to cross the thalamus or other subcortical structures. Take for example the visual system - it features many cortical projections ...


5

Looking at the client testimonials on the website you provided it looks like it varies from 1 session to a few more. Like any other therapy it seems to depend on the client and problem being dealt with. You could ask the therapist how many sessions you are likely to need for your problem in order to find out whether you would like to go ahead or not. I am ...


5

The reason why the amygdalae are in the middle of the brain is because they are not part of the reptilian brain. The amygdalae interact with many areas of the brain and are in the limbic system. They are often referred to being the "fear centre", but they have roles beyond just being a simple threat detector. Studies have found the amygdalae to be active ...


5

The brain has a lot of a fatty substance called myelin. It wraps around nerve fibers and enhances the speed of electrical communication between neurons (source: Brain Facts), and increases transmission efficiency (Fig. 1). It is produced by supporting cells in the brain called oligodendrocytes. Myelin is really just many wraps of membrane, and since neurons ...


5

First off, you mention 'metals'. What is a metal? In common speech, a metal is a shiny material that conducts electricity and heat well. In physics, a metal is regarded as a substance capable of conducting electricity at zero Kelvin. Many elements and compounds become metallic under high pressures, for instance iodine. Reversely, the metal sodium ...


5

I don't have a clear and definitive answer to give to you but first you should have a look about brain development (from:https://www.apa.org/education/k12/brain-function): And to the function associated to cerebellum: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4346664/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5243918/ And the number of neurons: ...


5

Hagfish, the most primitive vertebrates, do not appear to have a cerebellum, or if they do have one it is very primitive. Hagfish have most of the other structures found in vertebrate brains (including the telencephalon), so it is likely that the cerebellum actually evolved after the other five main brain regions. It is possible that the dorsal cochlear ...


4

Unlike a computer, where the circuitry is information agnostic (it can represent anything digital), neural networks (both biological and artificial) are not. The organization of neurons (their connections and the strengths of those connections) determines what they represent and how they process information. Thus, the visual cortex cannot be recruited for ...


4

Short answer The brain is a highly dynamic organ that changes constantly through life. During adulthood, there is a general decline in the number of cells. Memory formation is generally thought to be regulated through synaptic connections rather than at the whole-neuron level. Background First of all, aging results in a steady decline of the number of nerve ...


4

As of 2018, is it possible to induce pleasure in humans by some intervention like sending electrical signals? Yes, it is possible and has been done, typically as DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) for various disorders: OCD and depression are a few examples where the brain are stimulated induced pleasure. (Synofzik, Schlaepfer & Fins 2012) Regarding "How ...


4

I am wondering whether converting someone's memory into digital data is possible or not. Not today, but it is an active area of research. One non-profit foundation, headed by computational neuroscientist Dr. Randal A. Koene (see also his personal website), that is working in this field is Carbon Copies. Dr. Koene, in collaboration dozens of others and the ...


4

I'll try to tackle this question from a developmental vantage point. You hit the nail on the head by saying ...the brain is just neural connections... Indeed, the power of the brain is based on the connectivity of its neurons. The number of connections is what counts, not just absolute neuronal numbers. In fact, more than 50% of neurons are lost ...


4

Dr. Sagan is referring to the brain's ability to produce models of the world in order to test predictions. In terms of psychology contemporary with Carl Sagan, he may have been referring to, in part, the theory of schemas. This is a general representation of a thing or idea that is used in classifying or identifying the thing or idea. In developmental ...


3

Neurons are extraordinarily expensive to make, maintain, and use (Laughlin et al, 1998; Stone 2018). Half of a child's energy budget, and a fifth of an adult's budget, is required just to keep the brain ticking over (Sokoloff, 1989; Levy and Baxter, 1996). For both children and adults, half the brain's energy budget is used for neuronal information ...


3

It makes sense that you should either be good at something or not, but in fact our abilities vary a lot under different conditions. It sounds like what you are experiencing is loss of automaticity. There are things we do best without the interference of the conscious mind, like playing sports or driving or any skill that we have practiced a lot of times. ...


3

You shouldn't. It is one of those stubbornly persistent myths. It is almost entirely false. It is true that in some tasks one half the brain is more prominent (although even in supposed classic cases like speech both halves are actually involved, just one half more than the other). But the idea that one half of the brain is logical and the other ...


3

Here's an article talking about exactly what you are asking: EEG decoding of spoken words in bilingual listeners: from words to language invariant semantic-conceptual representations I can say that the brain obviously has the ability to invariantly represent different stimuli as being the same abstract concept, not even from stimuli in the same domain (such ...


3

What is the dominant hemisphere in the first place? I found the following definition (source: Medical Dictionary): [The] dominant hemisphere [is] [t]he left half of the brain in almost all right-handed people and 85% of left-handed people. This is the hemisphere concerned with language and logical thought and containing the motor areas for voluntary use ...


3

Luckily there are not one but several brain areas that when stimulated call for repeat stimulation. That is a way how one can define pleasure, by the way. If stimulation of an area makes animal to want more it is pleasurable. If not - the animal will avoid the mechanism that triggers the stimulus - that defines an aversive stimulus. In the 7 affective ...


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