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Short answer Brain waves are not electromagnetic waves. Long answer Measured brain activity, as you already mentioned, is the result of individual neurons firing. The activity exists, in fact, of two parts. First of all, there are the action potentials (APs). APs are current flow within a neuron from one end to the other. The magnitude of these APs (and ...


11

Short answer Brainwaves are typically associated with the electroencephalogram, which is a signal mainly composed of potential differences generated in the superficial layers of the brain. Potential differences represent electric fields and do not represent electromagnetic (EM) radiation. EM radiation is build up of packets of energy (photons). EM radiation ...


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What are brain oscillations? I think it is first important to recognize what brain oscillations refer to: they are small, somewhat localized fluctuations in voltage that are often measured by EEG (electroencephalogram), though they can also be measured inside the skull or inside the brain. Most of these oscillations are also seen in the membrane potentials ...


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Best start here: The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs (2014). And then here is some more current literature worth exploring: Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin (2012). Additionally: Broadband Cortical Desynchronization Underlies the ...


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There is a good article on Wikipedia on the Neuroscience of Free Will, with far too much content to adequately summarize here. Since your question is focused on long-term prediction of behaviour, I'll just mention about that. Using newer fMRI technology, Soon et al (2008) used a learning algorithm to predict "free will" decisions from brain activity about ...


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If "brain waves" produce a time-varying electric potential as shown on the EEG, then as far as I know electromagnetic waves are present. I was taught that you cannot have a time varying electric potential without creating an electromagnetic wave. You can try browsing wiki explanation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_equations, but the main idea is ...


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Yes they do. That is to say, light conditions do not generally affect alpha waves, only the eyelids do (and other factors). This has led to alpha waves being interpreted as reflecting an active inhibitory process in the visual cortex (relaxation) rather than a reduction of stimulus (resting). The following image is from an Israeli study published in 2013 ...


5

I take it you want to use eye movements for data input (rather than reading people's thoughts, which would be silly to consider). It's not the greatest idea, efficiency wise, but may have its strengths in terms of convenience. From a fairly recent (2014) review of eye based HCI: It should be noted, though, that gaze control of WIMP is noticeably slower ...


4

I’m interested in this matter too. I’m not an expert on this subject but, as far as I understand, brain oscillations seem to be essential in the functioning together of a large number of neurons: to not to cancel out each other information and to unite their information into one coherent information. And there seem to be oscillation generators for various ...


4

I believe I can see where the confusion lies when comparing the interesting artwork with psychodynamic theory. The artwork you linked uses Neurological data to form images, whereas you may be getting confused with the famous Rorschach test otherwise known as the Inkblot test, and how the inkblot images are interpreted by the viewer. Many psychologists in ...


4

In the general case of EEG, the x-axis is time, and the y-axis is the voltage potential measured by an electrode placed on the scalp. When others talk about "brain waves" they typically refer to oscillations visible in EEG electrode signals that have more power in a certain frequency range. For example, "Alpha brain waves" usually refer to EEG signals with ...


3

It looks like increased gamma activity is pronounced simply for long-term meditation practitioners. Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control rest (mind-wandering) state for 21 min in a counterbalanced design with spontaneous EEG recorded. Meditation state dynamics were measured with spectral decomposition of the last 6 min of ...


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Theta and Alpha are the waves associated with meditation (KaKasamatsu & Hirai, 1966; Khare & Nigam, 2000). Owen and Atwater found that: binaural auditory beats in the EEG alpha frequency range may increase alpha EEG production and subjective relaxation Furthermore On et al (2013) found that binaural beats could increase Theta activity: ...


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Both of your proposed methods to increase the measureable affect of binaural beats on the brain would introduce a monaural beat. For example, sweeping the volume from left to right means the volume in at least one ear is changing over time. You would hear a beating if you listened to just this ear. Similarly, to sweep the frequency range, you would need to ...


3

BCI has rougly two different approaches to extract features. I will address them both. When EEG is recorded, you can see an pattern of activity in a particular channel over time. This is the time-domain. The time domain is predominantly used to analyze Event Related Potentials. One application within BCI is the P300 speller. A matrix of letters is shown ...


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Short answer No, infrasonic or ultrasonic sound cannot generate binaural beats. Background Binaural beats are generated in the brain and are associated with the frequency bands of the EEG. Binaural beats in the delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) ranges have reportedly been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states, and used ...


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To upload information stored in the mind is to upload information stored in the brain because the brain is the physical part of the mind. To do this is not an easy task because the brain has neither output port nor functional modules for this purpose (to upload its information), and the information in the brain is not stored in one definite place like a hard ...


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See a previous Q&A: Why do brains oscillate within specific frequency ranges? I think that answer covers much of your question; I'll try to cover the rest here. In short, the names gamma/beta/alpha/theta/delta are just that: names of parts of a spectrum, just like colors red/green/blue. "Alpha waves" aren't necessarily a real, discrete thing, it's just ...


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No, the carrier frequency for a binaural beat needs to be less than approximately 1500 Hz. The binaural beat arises because when two tones with slightly different frequencies are added, the instantaneous phase of the combination tone varies with time and has a period equal to the difference of the tones. The generation of the binaural beat therefore requires ...


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